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Custom Islam and the West in World History Essay

1st paragraph left margin: The author considers the actual situation of relations between Islam and the West pointing out the position of Christian evangelicals and Jewish fundamentalists and scholars.

1st paragraph right margin: The author focuses on the background of the West - Islam confrontation stressing upon the existing by the early 21st century approaches of opponents.

2nd paragraph left margin: Shahrough Akhavi states that “Islam” and the West are abstract concepts.

2nd paragraph right margin: In this paragraph, the author mentions the purpose of his research. He wants to interpret the Muslims’ reaction to the West.

3rd paragraph left margin: The author considers the religion and the faith as the key point for understanding Muslims.

3rd paragraph right margin: Akhavi claims the religion as the criterion of research of behavior of Muslims.

4th paragraph left margin: The researcher labels keeping to the religion as a ‘minimalist view’.

4th paragraph right margin: The thesis of the scientist concerns the framework of implementation of Islam into the routine life of Muslims.

5th paragraph left margin: ‘Maximalist view’ demands to integrate in Islam despite religion politics as well.

5th paragraph right margin: This thesis represents opposite to the previous statement considering the role of Islam in the everyday life.

6th paragraph left margin: The author stresses upon such peculiarity of Islam as legalism. He reaches the conclusion that clergy in Islam perform as lawyers.

6th paragraph right margin: The author opposes the role of clergymen in Christianity and Islam in the framework of comparing the religions.

7th paragraph left margin: Akhavi clarifies that religious leaders in Islam also have deep knowledge in theology issues due to their role in such things as freedom, responsibility, and autonomy of Muslims.

7th paragraph right margin: The author claims about the all-round education of Muslim religious leaders.

8th paragraph left margin: The author concludes that Muslim society needs lawyers in order to fulfill religious requirements of ulama – men of religion. Religious leaders perform this role.

8th paragraph right margin:  The scientist states his thesis concerning the needs of Muslim society.

Development of Islamic thought and early contacts with Western ideas

9th paragraph left margin: Through the ninth and tenth centuries, Muslim scientists translated just philosophic foreign writings. There was no need to consider law texts.

9th paragraph right margin: Akhavi defines the topic of this chapter – early translations made in the school of Baghdad.

10th paragraph left margin: Muslim theologians used writings of Greek philosophy for development of their own arguments during the discussions. Greek idealistic philosophy had a significant influence on mysticism in Islam.

10th paragraph right margin: The author uses evidence of needlessness of translation of theological writings. He stresses upon the necessity of Platonic, neo-Platonic, and Aristotelian philosophy for the scholar discussions arguments. 

11th paragraph right margin: Akhavi shows that separation of Islam after the Prophet’s death means separation in practice. The theory has supported the idea of reintegration until nowadays.

11th paragraph left margin: The author claims that current Islam’s goal is to integrate both main movements.

12th paragraph right margin: Separation of Islam was of great importance for secession of politics from Islam. The caliphs lost their power to amirs.

12th paragraph left margin: The author argues for the changes in the Muslim societies after the separation of politics from Islam. He sets the problem of ex post facto rationalization.

13th paragraph right margin: The author shows the mental outlook of early Muslims by mentioning representatives of the other religions they interact with.

13th paragraph left margin: The scientist mentions one of the first cultural interactions after the Roman conquer of Greek territories. This evidence is even more reasonable by the mentioning of Muslim neighbors with whom they arranged theoretical disputes.

14th paragraph right margin: Christianity and Judaism are superseded religions but Muslims consider their main fundamental writings as important.

14th paragraph left margin: The author proves the cultural interactions by the term of “people of the book”.

Muslim theology and philosophy in interactions with the West

15th paragraph right margin: Key points of Ash’arism – dominant view of Islamic central tendency, which recognizes the Qur'an as the speech of God.

15th paragraph left margin: The author states the problem of a sin according to the Ash’arism.

16th paragraph right margin: The author points out differences between Mu’tazillism and Asd’arism by defining peculiarities of the first, which contain tawhid.

16th paragraph left margin: Counter-argument of the minority view – Mu’tazilism is the tawhid – the doctrine of the unified God in full measure.

17th paragraph right margin: The author analyzes historical conditions of the skeptical attitude of Ash’arism toward the West.

17th paragraph left margin: The author’s thesis is that skepticism of Ash’arism concerning Western values is out-of-date.

18th paragraph right margin: Muslim philosophy is criticized due to the translation of classical writings in Greek, Sanskrit, and Persian and impossibility to concur with modern tendencies.

18th paragraph left margin: The author states the reasons for mistrust of Muslim philosophers.

19th paragraph right margin: The scientist shows the influence of the Muslim philosopher on the Jewish philosophy that al-Kindi had.

19th paragraph left margin: Akhavi uses the writings of al-Kindi to prove his statement considering cultural interactions.

20th paragraph right margin: According to al-Farabi, no Muslim could maximize his potential outside of al-madina al-fadila – the perfect city, which shows influence of the ancient Greek philosophers.

20th paragraph left margin: The author develops his thesis of Greek influence on Arabian philosophers by emphasizing al-Farabi’s statement.

21st paragraph right margin:  Ibn Rushd’s statement considering impossibility of theologians to undertake scientific purposes of gnosis.

21st paragraph left margin: The author uses another example of Muslim influence on Jewish and Christian philosophy – ibn Rushd.

22nd paragraph right margin: Ibn Rushd is a prominent lawyer and publicist who criticized mysticism influenced St Thomas Aquinas and Maimonides.

22nd paragraph left margin: The author uses other evidence to show that prominent Arabian thinkers influenced Christian and Jewish philosophic and theological schools.

Decline of Islam and its impact on relations with the West

23rd paragraph right margin: Akhavi defines the decline of civilization after the tenth century. Turkish migration from Central Asia caused a loss of power by the caliphs.

23rd paragraph left margin: The author’s thesis deals with new era of the West – Islam relations since the seizure of power by Turkish warlords.

24th paragraph right margin: Fall of caliphate in Bagdad was accompanied by conflicts with the Mongols and the Crusaders.  

24th paragraph left margin: The author rebuts the Crusades being recognized as a religious contraposition. According to him, Muslims opposed hordes of wild Franks.  

25th paragraph right margin: The author clears out the reasons for Muslim’s unrecognizing of the Crusaders as Christian.

25th paragraph left margin: The previous rebuttal is argued by the mental attitude of Muslims towards Christians whom they allowed to live among them. The evidence is conditionally restricted by the Napoleonic wars.

26th paragraph right margin: Wars with conquerors made the ulama extremely defensive, which meant the decline of the Islamic thought.

26th paragraph left margin:  The author states that the attacks of the Crusaders and Mongols caused the stagnation of the Muslim thought until the 19th century.

27th paragraph right margin: Albertus Magnus and Dante started to criticize Islamic writings despite their popularity in universities.

27th paragraph left margin: The scientist offers evidence concerning attacks of European thinkers towards Arabic and Muslim thoughts since the thirteenth century.

Islam and the West in the early modern period

28th paragraph right margin: Relations between the West and the Ottoman Empire are hostile: the Constantinople fell and Muslims were ejected from the Iberian Peninsula.

28th paragraph left margin: Akhavi rebuts the evidence that the Ottomans were ignored in Europe by the big amount of bilateral agreements with European rulers.

29th paragraph right margin: Absence of press and development of trade were the main criteria for the Ottoman Empire functioning, in particular in fiscal policy.

29th paragraph left margin: The author’s statement concerns the absence of Europe in the Ottoman Empire until the eighteenth century. Despite this, the fact of a loyal attitude to the merchandisers in the Empire is shown as a positive element of the Turkish policy. 

30th paragraph right margin: Akhavi considers the defeat in 1683 as the key point of the European influence on the East. Appearance of rationalism caused the Muslim writings to have no influence on the European scholarly thought.  

30th paragraph left margin: The thesis of scientist deals with the Cartesian epistemological revolution and its influence on separation of church from the state, scientific and industrial revolutions, and domination in the Ottoman Empire until 1923.

31st paragraph right margin: The author enumerates such prominent European scientists and writers as critics of Islam: Peter the Venerable, Roger Bacon, Blasé Pascal, Francois Marie Arouet Voltaire, Denis Diderot, Edward Gibbon, Ernest Renan, Sir William Muir, HG Wells. Despite the small group, all the famous thinkers joined this trend.

31st paragraph left margin: The author’s argument is that most of the European thinkers since the end of the twelfth century belonged to the trend, which criticized the Prophet and his supporters.

32nd paragraph right margin: Failures in the military sphere caused recognition of the Austrian ruler as equal in status with the Sultan.

32nd paragraph left margin: The author’s evidence for the topic of a chapter is military losses of the Ottoman Empire in the Europe.

33rd paragraph right margin: Between 1683 and 1792, the Ottoman Empire lost the majority of its European possessions, as well as recognized the right of Russia and Austria to intervene in order to protect Christian population of the Empire.

33rd paragraph left margin: Akhavi considers the decline of the Porte as a result of coalition made by Christian European states.

34th paragraph right margin: Diplomatic failures caused the necessity to find out what made the success of the West. Resistance to European values gave rise to oriental motives in European literature.

34th paragraph left margin: The author’s statement takes attention to the Conservatism of Ottomans, which could not adopt European habits.

The Islamic world and the West in the modern period

35th paragraph right margin: The French revolution, political and military interventions caused a significant influence on the expansion of colonial control of European countries over the Ottoman Empire and other Asian states.

35th paragraph left margin: Akhavi points out the reasons for colonization of the Muslim states since the end of nineteenth century.

36th paragraph right margin: Discussion of the supporters and opponents of European-oriented reforms adds up to the role of the holy law – shari’a – in the development of the society after implementation of changes.

36th paragraph left margin: The author uses counter-arguments of two main groups of clergy concerning adoption of European political models.

37th paragraph right margin: Despite the strong opposition, the reformist movement salafiyya showed their disposition for the dialog with the West. They paid attention as well to the institute of independent decision - ijtihad.

37th paragraph left margin: The scientist offers evidence for the openness of the Muslim society to the oncoming pro-Western reforms: the activities of the Islamic movement for reforms and their opinion considering the role of ijtihad.

38th paragraph right margin: The main reasons for the distrust are the breach of obligations by the Western countries and support of separatist movements on the territory of Muslim states.

38th paragraph left margin: The author explains in his thesis the limits of the pro-Western orientation of the reformist movement by the territorial pretensions of European countries, support of the secessionism in the Ottoman Empire and Zionists in the Middle Asia.

39th paragraph right margin: Fascism, due to the Italian aggression in the Northern Africa, and Marxism, because of its foreign character, failed to consolidate a position in the Islamic society. Liberalism had more chances unless it had too many disputable issues.

39th paragraph left margin: Akhavi represents arguments proving his thesis concerning fails of Fascism, Marxism, and Liberalism in the Middle East. He rebuts Huntington’s and Pipes’ statements concerning the antidemocratic character of Islam.

 40th paragraph right margin: The author analyzes the institute of the possessive individualism as a fundamental principle of Liberalism based on the citation from MacPherson’s writing, giving attention to the difference between this institute in Liberalism and in Islam.

40th paragraph left margin: The author affirms that the main reason for the impossibility to adopt the Western model even by Islamic modernists is the proprietary individualism. The evidence based on MacPherson’s view shows its contradiction with traditional Islam rules.

41st paragraph right margin: Even in the most modern theories, self-affirmation is in opposition to Islam and morality of a community.

41st paragraph left margin: Akhavi emphasizes the reasons for impossibility of Liberalism implementation, using as evidence salvation, which is the central idea of Islam.

42nd paragraph right margin: Colonization of the Islamic states performed under democratic values was not such: all the pro-Western changes were executed just in order to increase incomes and support loyal landlords.  

42nd paragraph left margin: The idea of a scientist consists in double standards of liberal values: for the West and the Muslims that cause the cynicism of local Islamic population towards Europeans.

Code: Sample20

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