Â Is policy analysis normative or positive. This is a quote obtained in Policy analysis: Myth or reality, Ukeles article 1977. Therefore, the main question is to explore the difference betweenÂ Â knowledge of policy and knowledge in the policy. In the article the author states that policy sciences are concerned with knowledge of and in the decision process of the public and civic order. Policy analysts claim that policy analysis in the normative mode refers to the analysis in policy making , designed not to increase understanding but to improve the process of policy making, as well as, the content of the policies which are made.
This analysis will, to a great extent combine both the positive and normative analysis in the discussion. The positive analysis examines the way things are, whereas the normative analysis prescribes the policies and the actions to arrive at a desired goal. Thus, it purports to examine the way things ought to be done. In economics, policy makers apply both the positive and normative analysis when examining policy issues. Positive analysis focus on ways to increase economic growth; hence is factual and are based on statements whose validity can be tested empirically, whereas, in normative analysis applies economic statements which are based on opinion or ideology. In the article, the author also brought an idea whether policy analysis is an activity or profession.
Some people view policy analysis as an activity which is carried out in various disciplines; hence people involved in the collection of evidence bearing on alternative policy options viewed as engaging in policy analysis. The author claims that policy analysis is an issue Â which relates to training and practice of the public general affairs. Therefore, it should be identified with a Â particular set of knowledgeÂ and skills used by administrators in the course of their activities.
The author also claims that in some cases policy analysis is identified as a professional role with its own underlying principle. It does not mean that policy analysts are not the only people engaged in policy analysis. However, it means that those who are involved in policy analysis should develop a professional identity to cope with the challenges of carrying out the analysis in the public domain. However, the activity is most likely to flourish, improve, and become established if taught and practiced as a separate field.
Therefore, it is the role of the policy analysts to enrich the nature of the public policy by raising the level of dialogue through greater information. The analysts should also be at the forefront to assist central decision makers or executives in the policy making system. Consequently, the Â analysts assist in balancing the competing interests, values, as well as, information. The policy analysts should be rationality advocates in the policy making process since the policy making process is an activity which is faced with a challenging hostile environment.
Thus, on order to understand the difference between knowledge of policy and knowledge in the policy, a policy orientation has been developed that cuts across the existing specializations. The orientation is twofold, in part, it is directed towards the policy process, and in part toward the intelligence needs of policy. The first task which involves the development of a science of policy forming and execution, uses and methods of social and psychological inquiry. The second task which is the improving of the content of the information, and the interpretation available to policy makers, typically go outside the boundaries of social science psychology.
The author observed that the rational model of policy making process aims at; identifying objectives, identifying all possible courses of action relevant to achieving objectives, predicting Â possible consequences of alternative cures of action, selecting alternatives which maximize the attainment of objectives. The other models also emphasize on; assessing the policy model environment within which the analyst and the relevant departments are operating, identifying Â the policy question or problem, identifying alternatives appropriate to the policy model environment and departments, identifying criteria for alternatives, and using assumptions and limited information assess the pros and cons of each alternative into the relevant criteria. Thus, policy analysis should combine proven methods of system analysis with qualitative methods and full awareness of the special characteristics of the political phenomena and the entire policy making process.
Analytical Framework Comparison
Maqasid include wisdom behind rulings such as enhancing social welfare which is one the wisdoms behind charity and social cooperation. It is concerned with individuals rather families, societies, and that the traditional classification did not include the most universal and basic values, such as justice and freedom.. In summary the Maqasid Al Sharia framework is referred as a normative Â framework which revolves around the idea that any social arrangements, design of policy proposal concerning intervention and social changes meant for promotion of human wellbeing should bend on enriching and building of human capabilities in areas such as preservation of faith, oneself, mind, wealth, family, and dignity upon which human development is predicted.
The Maqasid approach echoed with the mainstream concept of human development. However, this approach targetsÂ religion and family institutions as vital areas for the building of capabilities for the enhancement of their well being. The Maqasid al-Shari’ah framework reveals a dignified view of Islam which has to be observed entirely as Islam is a religious group is an absolute and integrated pattern of life, since, its focus is on complete life, personal and public. It underlines the most imperative pillars for enhanced improvementÂ of the financial structure. The preservation of human dignity refers to the protection of the dignity of an individual regardless of whatever can violate it, such as human rights and freedom.
A rational framework, such as the Qatar framework, provides a comprehensive detailed data on the whole population in addition to the demographic, social and economic characteristics by the lowest level, in administrative or geographical setting with related indicators, such as, population growth rates, employment rates, as well as, gender and age composition features. A rational frameworkÂ provides provides vital information enabling the assessment of population status, as well as, monitoring demographic, social and economic changes taking place during the same period in various administrative divisions. On the other hand, the framework also provides data on workforce with a high degree of precision.
Another vital component of the rational framework is that it provides a necessary framework for deriving samples to be applied in field research which are to be carried out in future. In addition, it also provides vital information on household characteristics, as well as, features which are related to living conditions, and basic data required for comprehensive and modern frameworks for buildings, houses, as well as, households for various administrative sectors. Thus, it is vital to understand that the rational frameworks are evidence on particular policies are built and they are vital since they identify the needs, set the goals, and monitor the progress. They allow policy makers to learn from their mistakes, since the public cannot hold them accountable.
Public Goods and Experiments done in class
Public good is good that everyone in the public can use, however, it is important to note that the publicness of a good is not a guarantee that it is valued by all people in the same way. Thus, public goods are non-rival and non-excludable in consumption since once they exist, they are made available for everyone to enjoy. Therefore, it is seen as a rational strategy for other people to enjoy the public goods without participating in their production. Based on the tragedy of the commons, this is observed as a dilemma, because without a collective action, they are under risk of over exploitation with external factors, such as pollution. In the experiment conducted, public goods are the one which everyone in the public can utilize, thus, it is seen as the share of the public fund, which an individual obtains whether they have contributed or not. However, the challenge is that when the public is invited to participate in the production of the public good, there is a strong incentive compelling everyone not to contribute.
There are two approaches towards public policies towards externalities. These approaches include command and control policies which regulate the behaviors of people direct; y, such as pollution control. The other approach entails the market-based policies which focus on providing incentives to enable the private decision makers to make a decision to solve the problem on their own, such as, the tradable taxes and subsidies. Therefore, public goods show a characteristic of underÂ provision due to lack of a well-established property rights. However, with appropriate policies, the government can control these problems by initiating better policies.
The other problem with my public goods is that since people do not pay for them, there is an incentive to free ride, or a tragedy of the common. On the other hand firms lack incentives to provide them. Thus, since they are provided by the government, cost benefit analysis is used in their production. And to determine how much to produce. In addition, the public utilizes the common resources without paying for them so they tend to overexploit them. However, governments have mechanisms in lace to limit the use of public goods.
Some people cannot afford to pay for the public goods. However, it is important to note that these goods should not be allowed to further the existing inequalities between the rich and the poor. The reason being that some public goods may not be accessible to the poor. For example, the free market which offers unequal opportunities to different people. In such a situation, the willingness of people, as well as, nations will suffer, in the same manner as the public good. However, there are certain public goods, which do not limitÂ the chance of other people, to be treated in the same manner, such as the practice of the principle of equity. According to a new policy designed by the government, there will be a pile of resources to distribute among individuals. Policy analysts believe that rather than the state, individuals should suffer distributed based on game theoretical modeling; rule:
In the question provided, based on the discussions held on public goods, their different forms, and experiments conducted in relation to public goods. In the experiment, the proposers offered 20 dollars which were accepted.