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China is one of the oldest civilizations found still alive which is still in continuous. In 1949, there was a Chinese civil war which took place in china and it had separated the country into two states:

  1. The People’s Republic of China which was established in 1949 and has the control over the mainland and the largely self-governing territories of Hong Kong and Macau.
  2. The Republic of China was established in 1912 on the mainland china, commonly known as Taiwan has control over the islands of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu.

There were civil wars and many other wars which had damaged the country and its economy. Then the change took place in the year 1950, when the economic policies in the Republic of China took place and has transformed the island into its technological oriented industrialized developed economy and had become the Four Asian Tiger along with Hong Kong, South Korea and Singapore.

The presence of first evidence of human in the region was found at Zhoukoudian cave. It is one of the first known specimen of Homo erectus which is known as Peking man which is estimated to live around 3, 00,000 to 7, 80,000 years ago. The word china is derived from the Persian word which was popularized in Europe by Marco polo.

The official name of china was changed with each dynasty. The common name is Zhongguo which means traditionally as middle kingdom or central country. Japan has been dated to 16,600 to 18,250 years old, so modern humans probably reached China before that time. China was ruled by Five Dynasties History. The dynasties comprised of a string in northern china that was succeeded one another from 907 — 960.

The five dynasties are the Later Liang Dynasty, Later Tang Dynasty, Later Jin Dynasty, Later Han Dynasty and Later Zhou Dynasty. These dynasties were divided into two Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. Xue Juzheng lived through all the five dynasties and he received his “Jinshi” degree under the Later Tang Dynasty. This continues to hold the three subsequent dynasties and took the service which established itself in the northern china.

China has one of the most traditional forms of culture which has different forms. Chinese characters have had many variants and styles throughout Chinese history. The manuscripts of the classics and religious texts were handwritten by the ink brush. Calligraphy later became commercialized, and works by famous artists became prized possessions.

There is change in the art of Chinese script. Chinese art has varied throughout its ancient history which has been divided into periods by the ruling dynasties of the china and the change in the technology. A different form of art has been influenced by great philosophers, teachers, religious figures and even political leaders. Chinese art compasses of fine arts, folk arts and performance arts.

The early form of art in china was found during Shang Dynasty and it consists of pottery and jade in the Neolithic period and was made of bronze. Shang is always remembered for the blue casting and its details are available. The early Chinese also had the knowledge of music and poetry. The records can be seen in the Book of songs, Confucius and the statesman QU Yuan.

Porcelain was introduced and refined to the point in the English word china which has become the synonymous with the high quality porcelain. In the 1st century the arrival of Buddhism are clearly seen, which become popular during the 4th century. Chinese Buddhist art began to flourish, a process which continued through the 20th century.

During the period of Imperial China the Calligraphy and painting became popular and was highly appreciated. Then the silk work and after that invention of paper. Buddhist architecture and sculpture thrived in the Sui and Tang dynasty. Of which, the Tang Dynasty was particularly open to foreign influence.

The Buddhist Sculpture returned into the classical form which inspired the Indian art of the gupta period. The late Tang dynasty the foreign religions were outlawed to support Taoism. The poet during the Song dynasty marked a lyric poetry which is known as Ci, which could express the feelings of the desire which is often adopted persona. Blurred outlines and mountain contours which conveyed distance through an impressionistic treatment of natural phenomena.

There was place in the spiritual things rather than emotional elements. There were two specific dynasties in the imperial china which were Ming and Qing. Gao Qi was one of the most popular poets of the era of Ming dynasty. Ming dynasty perfected color painting and color printing, with a wider color range and busier compositions than Song paintings. Beijing opera was introduced; it is considered the one of the best-known forms of Chinese opera during the Qing dynasty.

The ShanghaiSchool challenged and broke the literati tradition of Chinese art, while also paying technical homage to the ancient masters and improving on existing traditional techniques. Then there was a transformation in the Chinese art. The Chinese art were heavily influenced by the new culture movement and which adopted western technique and it employed on its socialist realism.

The Cultural Revolution would shape Chinese art in the 20th century like no other event in history with the Four Olds destruction campaign.

Contemporary Chinese artists continue to produce a wide range of experimental works, multimedia installations, and performance “happenings” which have become very popular in the international art market.

Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world. The earliest paintings were not representational but ornamental; they consisted of patterns or designs rather than pictures. Stone Age pottery was painted with spirals, zigzags, dots, or animals. It was only during the Warring States Period that artists began to represent the world around them.

The main two techniques in the Chinese painting which includes:

  1. Meticulous: Gong Bi which referred to court style painting.
  2. Freehand: ShuiMo which means watercolor or brush painting. The word MO means ink and Shui means water. This style is referred to as “xie yi” or freehand style.

Painting in the traditional style is known today in Chinese as guo hua meaning ‘national’ or ‘native painting’, as opposed to Western styles of art which became popular in China in the 20th century. As with calligraphy, the most popular materials on which paintings are made of are paper and silk. The finished work is then mounted on scrolls, which can be hung or rolled up.

Folk art is based off of the daily life. Another Chinese art is clay crafts. They are beautifully shaped with vivid colors. The history behind it records the people did it over 600 years ago? Chinese clay crafts often depict mystical and historic. Animals and fruit are also popular themes. They use clay and pulp to make them, then they sundry them. Next they powder them, paint them and then finally they varnish them.

The traditional knot dance of china is a kind of folk art. This was developed around 960 to 1229 A.D. every knot is made of a single rope. Secretly in royal palaces and in private homes. Only the wealthy could afford this beautiful art. Including bamboo, feathers, silk, paper, and ivory. They are decorated with paintings and with calligraphy. Some are even powdered with gold. The ones with real gold and real jade would be associated with people who have great wealth and dignity.

The last traditional art that we will cover is Chinese Embroidery. One of the oldest found was a map embroidered on silk fabric. Chinese embroidery is often found at Chinese weddings. The Chinese Embroidery includes very fine and close stitches. It looks smooth, neat, and glossy. Those are some of the Chinese traditional arts.

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