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The Americans with Disability Act and the Civil Rights Act of 1991 were a culmination of efforts by various human rights groups to represent the disabled people in the U.S. From 1988, American people living with disabilities began challenging the societal and social barrier that had seen children with disabilities segregated upon and excluded from schools (Stephen et al., 2006). Lobby groups were formed to advocate for the rights of disabled people to make their plights more visible. On the other hand, the Civil Rights Act was formed to protect American citizens against discrimination based on sex, religion, and race. It sought to make all Americans equal in terms of employment opportunities, political representation, and choice of religion.

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The realization that people ought not to be blocked from jobs due to physical and mental limitations further fueled the need to have an American Society where all would be equal. Together with the Equal Employment Opportunities Act, the Civil Rights Act ensured equal employment opportunities for all and especially gave legal protection for disabled employees (Stephen et al., 2006).

In recognition of women's segregation in nursing, nursing licensure laws were developed to help increase women's visibility in the nursing profession. Nursing licensure avails credentials to nurses, as well as recognizes the contributions they make to society.

Permissive Nursing Licensure

Health practitioners do not have to have a license so that they can practice. So long as they meet the threshold nursing standards, this licensure considers nurses registered. Requirements include passing an examination and graduating from a recognized nursing school. Nurses can decide whether or not they want to obtain further credentials so that they can have the title “Registered Nurse” (Wissman et al., 2008).

Mandatory Nursing Licensure

The initial mandatory nursing licensure law was enacted in 1945, to help distinguish between regular nurses and registered nurses. The Act stipulates that every nurse must have a practicing license so that they legally protect their nursing titles. Every nurse must pass a licensing examination in their area of specialization (Wissman et al., 2008).

Institutional Licensure

It refers to the legal authorization of health care agencies to operate as an institution, rather than granting credentials to individual nurses within the institution. The legislation accords such institutions the right to offer particular health duties to the public as permitted and specified by the authorizing body.

The nursing Practicing Act and other state Acts provide guidelines and safe parameters within which nurses can act; additionally, they protect patients from unscrupulous and unprofessional nurses (Wissman et al., 2008). The acts can be amended from time to time depending on various situations.

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