Dr. Dawkins wrote his book â€œThe Greatest Show on Earthâ€ in 2009. It was not his first book about the evolution. In previous books, he tried to understand some misconceptions in the evolution. He admired with Charles Darwin and in one of his books he looked at Darwinâ€™s life and he tried to find some evidences for evolution. However, he had some doubts that he missed something very important, some link that could explain everything. That is why in 2009 he wrote his book, calledÂ Â â€œThe Greatest Show on Earth.â€
For better understanding this book, we have to learn what the artificial selection is. In addition, we have to learn how the artificial selection differs from the natural selection. We have to learn what means intelligent design and how it differs from the artificial and natural selection.
Charles Darwin was the first scientist who used the term artificial selection in his book. Moreover, he coined this term. The scientist used this term in his book two times. However, he did not clarify the term, because he used it in different ways. At first, he used the term artificial selection and wrote about the combined and good-looking things that he considered humans could create in the progress. The second time he used the term artificial selection and gave another explanation. He used this term for the description of the reasons for dissimilarities in the breeds of animals in countries with other developmental levels. Therefore, we can see that the accurate definition for the term artificial selection Charles Darwin did not give. Later, other scientists gave the clear definition for this term. The artificial selection is a term used for the description of the breeding animals and plants. This breeding must have desired characteristics, but it is not important to have the characteristics that allow the scion to survive in the wild in a better way. We can hear the other name of this term, the unnatural selection.
It is very easy to perform such selection. The scientists chose a peculiar plant or animal. It is specific, because it has some specific peculiarities and characteristics that the breeder wants. Then this plant or animal breeds with another plant or animal, which has the same desired characteristics. In the result of such breeding, the scion will have higher chances to show the specific desirable characteristics. This process can be very long and scientists go through it until the reaching desirable results. The breeders must be very careful, because some plants and animals they cannot breed. If the plants or animals have a very similar line (for example, they are of one kind), it will lead to defects and serious problems.Â
The results of such selection are easy to observe. For example, the cats with flat noses are the result of artificial selection. Because of such selection they cannot breathe in a proper way and they suffer from it. We can see that such selection did not help them to live in the wild nature, but they became more desired for their owners. It refers also to dogs, which breeders want to make less aggressive, fluffier or smaller. Such selections do not help the animals, but their owners are absolutely satisfied.
Charles Darwin proposed the term natural selection, described it and divided it into four components. The first one is a variation. Some organisms within population are different. They have different bodies, shapes, and sizes. On the other hand, there are no differences in quantity of noses, eyes, and ears. The second is inheritance. Some characteristics come to the scion from their parents. And some characteristics are completely depending on environmental factors. It helps to show weak specimen. The third is a high rate of population growth. If there are many scions they have to struggle for the resources. And the last is differential survival and reproduction. Specimens, which are more meant for the environment will survive and reproduce more scions than other specimens. Charles Darwin called the natural selection â€œstruggle for existenceâ€. Therefore, we can sum up that natural selection is the process of breeding new kinds of the specimens without breeders help.
The difference between artificial and natural selections is obvious. In the process of natural selection plants and animals struggle for the surviving without the help of breeders. And only the strongest will win in this struggle. Nobody can choose the characteristics, which can ensure the surviving of the specimen. While in the process of artificial selection breeders can choose what plants they want to breed and what characteristics they should have.
â€œIntelligent Design is the study of patterns in nature that are best explained as the result of intelligence,â€ this phrase belongs to William A. Dembski. Dembski researched the question of intelligent design. Darwin made a research on this question too. He pointed natureâ€™s imperfections and intelligence. Since Darwinâ€™s time, many scholars have devoted their lives to researches intelligent design.Â Many scientists, among them biologists, chemists, and philosophers researched this question and formulated a new view of the intelligent design that differed from the old versions. William Dembski devoted to this question many years and he claimed the following: â€œIntelligent causes are necessary to explain the complex, information-rich structures of biology and that these causes are empirically detectableâ€.
We can see that the theory of intelligent design presents certain features of the world and of living things like an intelligent cause. It means that intelligent design is a direct process, not such as natural selection. The theory of the intelligent design believes that the universe and all living things are creations of higher power, for instance, by God, but not by nature. We can see that this theory differs from the other theories a lot.
Dr. Dawkins in his book states: â€œâ€¦evolutionary scientists are in the position of detectives who come late to the scene of a crimeâ€ (Dawkins, 85). In my opinion, Dr. Dawkins wanted to say that evolution have happened many years ago. Nowadays, there are no direct evidences for it, nobody can talk how it has happened. All scholars who make the researchs of the evolution are like detectives. They have to find the cause of the evolution, conditions, which assisted to it and explain all results, which we can see at present. Scientists must set up the order of all events. In our Universe, each event happened in the sequence. It can happen before or after another event, but it will happen in a sequence. This is called temporal sequence. Dr. Dawkins supported the science and its definition of temporal sequence. He claimed that all things have happened in temporal sequence, one by one. â€œEvolution could so easily be disproved if just a single fossil turned up in the wrong date order. Evolution has passed this test with flying colors. Sceptics of evolution who wish to prove their case should be diligently scrabbling around in the rocks, desperately trying to find anachronistic fossils,â€ says Richard Dawkins.
In addition, Dr. Dawkins states â€œWe shall continually find examples of evolution correcting an initial â€˜mistakeâ€™ or historical relic by post hoc compensation or tweaking, rather than going back to the drawing board as a real designer wouldâ€ (Dawkins,Â 163). Dawkins describes dolphins, fish, and whales. He says that not only dolphins are live-bearers. Some species of fish are also live-bearers. He also says â€œThe bodies of whales and sirenians abound in historical relics that we notice because they live in a very different environment from their land-dwelling ancestorsâ€ (Dawkins, 164). He wanted to explain us that natural selection also can lead us to mistake. Nowadays, not every fact of evolution was confirmed. It is impossible to do right now. Everything that has happened many years ago is covered by the curtain of time.
After the completing the book discussion, I have to express my opinion. As for me, I am a follower of the Darwinâ€™s school. For me, it is more understandable and it is easier to explain Darwins theories. In our world the strongest can survive. We can see it while watching on the wild animals. Only strong animals can compete for the territory, food, and life. In addition, I agree with his theory of artificial selection. Nowadays, all over the world we can see the results of the artificial selection. Different breeds of dogs, cats, flowers, and trees are good examples of it. People even can clone the animals. The world known example was a sheep Dolly. However, maybe in a few years the scientists will find new and incontrovertible evidence that forced me to change my mind substantially.