This work expounds on contemporary management with decision-making, web analytics, planning, quality management and management theories inclusive.
Web analytics is the measuring, collecting, analyzing and reporting data on the internet with the aim of optimizing and understanding web usage. Other than taking measures of traffic on websites, web analytics is a vital tool for market and business surveys. It can also be used as a strategy of improving and determining the website’s effectiveness. Application based on web analytics aids many companies to attain the results of traditional prints advertising campaign. After the launching websites, web analytics generates the required information on the number of those visiting the platform and the quantity of pages that they view. This way, popularity trends and web traffic are gauged. Both are crucial for market research.
Impact of Web Analytics on E-commerce Explained
Technology is a fundamental entity in web analytics. However, technology is not the only tool that keeps companies from succeeding in web analytics. Technology should not be over relied. Technology should not be a source of excitement through pushing it to the limit in view of the chief goals it can attain.
Contemporary Management Theories and Models
Managerial and Organizational Impacts
The management under web analytics varies depending on the factions operating in the organization structure. Accountability is ensured, performance checks can be evaluated, and understanding of the business trends is simpler.
Management Theories and Models
F.W. Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory
The scientific management theory studies the relationship between tasks and people with the aim of redesigning work process to attain high efficiency. The strategy aims at reducing the time spent on a task by a worker through optimizing on the procedure to driving to its completion. The scientific management has principles owed to its success. First, the procedure to the job completion needs identification with detailed motion and time information collected. Methods to completion compared, and the optimum method selected, which out-weighs the rest. Second, the workers should be trained on the selected methods. Third, identified workers matching the skills’ rules should be selected from the larger group. Established fair levels of performance and payment limits apply to the workers generating higher output.
Division of labor amongst workers allows specialization to avoid worker dissatisfaction and poor quality results. Special expertise is reached through informal and formal authority. Unity of command ensures that employees are under a single boss. The line of authority on the commanding chain from top to bottom of firms ought to be clarified. Management centralization dictates the degree of distribution of authority from the top. The firms’ management unity of direction ensures a specific guiding action plan. Equity is abundant providing fairness and justice avoids the employees’ impartial treatment. Managers should have the order maintained on employees ensuring their optimum returns to the firm. Innovativeness and creativity should be fostered encouraging the workers self-driven decisions.
Discipline and obedience yield much from respectful employees. Remuneration of workers ensures equitable payment systems motivating contribution to the firm’s success. Esprit de corps ensures comradeship where shared enthusiasm fosters devotion to the improvement of the organisation.
The theory has bottlenecks where managers only implement the section on increased output where the workers do not share on the higher output. Specialized jobs tend to be frustrating and dull thus leading to workers distrust to the management theory. Workers could intentionally decide to underperform where the management could end up introducing more machines. The theory by Taylor got positive modification from Lillian Gilbreth and frank. Each job was broken into its broader components. Worker welfare is taken care of such as fatigue form heat, lighting, and the machines/tools design.
Administrative Management Theory
The administrative management theory studies the options available to the creation of organisational structures leading to increased efficiency and effectiveness.
Bureaucracy Theory by Max Weber
Max Weber developed the bureaucracy concept as formal administrative and organisational systems to ensure effectiveness and efficiency. The theory holds principles to its survival. The first principle implies that authority holds workers accountable for their tasks. Positions in firms are retained based on the degree of performance and not based on social contracts. Positional duties are well illustrated and assigned to ensure enlightenment of the workers expectation(s). Workers should know whom to report to through clear identification of authority lines. Operations’ success relies on SOPs, standard operating procedures, and norms.
Behavioral Management Theory
The behavioral management theory studies the desired behaviours of effective managers who motivate employees and encourage them for high-level performance and commitment to goal achievement. This plays a vital role in the success of any management. It suggests that workers should help in the analysis of their jobs for success, as they know their best methods for job improvement. Workers with relevant knowledge control the designated tasks.
Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor proposed these theories based on holding two differing assumption sets on workers. The X theory assumes an average lazy worker, dislikes and the same worker’s attitude hardly perform any task. Such workers should be taken under control, and observation by the management and if there is a need, punishments and rewards may be brought forward. The Y theory assumes that the workers possess different characteristics from the X theory lot. Such workers gain motivation to do admirable jobs where the quality of the jobs signifies the truth of the matter. The workers of this caliber should be allowed extensive latitudes by their managers and consequently stimulating them further.
Management Science Theory
This approach applies rigorous quantitative methods on maximization of the organizations’ beneficial resource utilization. Linear programming, simulation systems and models make the base for quantitative management. The operations management technique analyses all aspects of a production system. Total Quality Management, TQM, laid its focus on quality improvement in the organization. A Management Information System delivers the required information associated with the organization (Stanford 2007, p. 51).
Organizational Environment Theory
The theory holds conditions and forces operating beyond the boundaries of an organization although affecting the ability of the manager in acquiring and utilizing resources.
The Open and Closed Systems
This system takes resources for the external environment and converts them into goods and services, which are later sent to their original environments for sale. The inputs are money and capital, human resources, and raw materials, the organization and value to the inputs through employment of computers, machinery and human skills. This system acts contrary to the closed system that is self-contained. External distractions do not hinder the operations. It loses its control and eventually fails, undergoes entropy. An organization on synergy incorporates coordinating departments and individuals.
Its base is rooted on there being no possibility of one satisfactory way of management. The environment directly influences the management thus managers ought to be flexible on acting on a dynamic environment. Inter-departmental changes adaption is also rapid.
Characteristics of Effective Management and Managers
- Be a leader by example
- Possess effective communication skills
- Should provide feedback
- Fairness should prevail
- Should be positive, negativity ruins management
- Good customer services
- Integrity and trustworthiness must be ensured
- Team building and playing
- Improved conflict resolution
- Wide knowledge is based on the organization’s industry
- Must be dependable
Factors Influencing upon Effective Management in the Global Environment
The external environment divides into two: directly interactive and the indirectly interactive. The direct has firsthand and immediate impact on the organization. A clear example is
- Emerging competitors – They pose a challenge while vying for close customers in the market containing similar services and products.
- Owners – Expect the firm’s managers to keep track of their interests and eventually provide returns on investment.
- Customers – The customers tend to demand on satisfactory services and products on purchased entities for own use.
- Suppliers – Require payment, attentive communication, and bold work relations for provision of the desired resources.
- Employee unions and individual employees – The representative task forces are of concern to the management.
On the contrary, the indirect interactive mode has more distant and secondary impact upon the firm’s organization. Legislation affects it in such cases where those with disabilities are covered. The facilities would then need upgrades or replacement. Others include socio-cultural issues, legal and political dimensions, technological advancement and obsolescence, and economic conditions such as interest rates and inflation.
Managing Diverse Employees in a Multicultural Environment
Difference among the workers’ ages, gender, ethnicity, race, religion, socioeconomic levels, capabilities and sexual orientation make up the diversity that ought to be given dire concern. Minority activism should be given room such as pushes for women employment to top posts. Procedural justice calls for fair treatment in the determination on methods of distributing the firm’s members. Angles of perception of different individuals need attention as they hold meaning in their way of thinking. Stereotypes include in accurate or semi-accurate beliefs on typical characteristics of differing groups, they should be weighed in comparison with situations at hand. Discrimination and biases should be scraped out of the management structure. Hostile work environments such as sexual harassments and quid pro quo sexual harassments deter the success of organizations. Counselling and disciplinary committees should observe the conduct of completely organizational structure.
Impacts of Managerial Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Sustainable Development on Modern Organizations
Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR, helps in embracing resultant actions of a company encouraging positive environmental impacts on customers, stakeholders, communities, employees and the public. It is entitled for any growing organisation that wishes to uphold the customers. The recognized CSR standard is ISO26000. Management ethics examines the ethical principles and ethical/moral problems arising in an organization. Sustainable development is scored through community-based developments.
Organizational Structure and Cultural, Leadership, and Effective Team Management Concepts Principles
The horizontal and the hierarchical formats are some of the organisational structures. The planning and structural concepts depend on the organization and the direction of flow of duty delegation planning principles include comprehensiveness, efficiency, inclusiveness, informative levels, logic, and transparency. The concepts range from visions, problem identified, goals/objectives, performance indicators to scope. The better the organisational structure is, the faster the conclusions are drawn. Leadership borrows all the traits of effective management listed above. For effective team management, the team builders must be on the frontline in demonstrating the requirements (Avinash 2007, p. 54).
These models aid in understanding of the reasons for leaders’ actions and noting the different approaches for differing situations. There are two major models: the Managerial Grid and the Four Framework Approach.
The Four-framework Approach
It suggests that leaders should display good leadership in either structural, political, human resource or symbolic framework.
Human resource framework
This model categorizes leaders into the four frameworks above. Any of these approaches fit in all or some of the situations thus reliance on a specific approach would be termed inadequate. Giving an example of making changes in a database management firm, structural approaches would be more fit than the symbolic approach. When growth is desired, however, the latter would be more reliable.
The Structural Framework
The structural framework forms a base for effective leadership making the leader a social architect in the styles of design and analysis. The focus on this structure lies on strategy, structure, environment, experimentation, implementation, and adaption.
Human Resource Framework
The leaders become the servant and catalyst of styles in supporting, empowering and advocating. In the ineffective style, the leaders are pushovers on fraud and addiction. Such leaders communicate the fact that they believe in people. They ensure increased participation brings decision making to the organization and share information.
The Political Framework
The political framework is an effective situation in leadership upholding building and coalition from the advocate leader. The inefficient leaders are hustlers dwelling on manipulation. They bridge links to fellow stakeholders utilizing persuasion and negotiation having assessed interests and power distribution.
The Symbolic Framework
The leader becomes the prophet on an inspirational style contradicting to the ineffective leaders who are fanatic with styles of mirrors and smoke. They see the organisation as a platform to play distinct roles to give impressions. Their work is to establish and communicate the visions (William 2010, p. 39).
The Managerial Grid
The model applies two axis, concern for people and for task. Concerns for people plot on the vertical axis while the latter plots on the horizontal axis raging from 0-9. This gives the model simplicity and attraction.
(Gareth & Jennifer 2007, p. 119)
The highest group falls in the middle of both axis, middle of the road. The extreme edges produce authoritarian, country club, impoverished and team leaders (models for a good team leadership). The authoritarian type is weak on people’s skills and strong on tasks contrary to the country club. Impoverished type is weak on skills and tasks. The team leader possesses strength on people’s skills and tasks.
Some of the business modelling approaches include strategic planning, revenue and cost planning, financial projection, budgeting investment appraisal, capacity and resource planning. These models offer flexibility on business planning. The models should be challenging, accurate, speedy and interactive. The model aids in identification of the profitable plans, strategies and financial investments. Close ties with the client are established to reflect the operations of the business.
Pre-bureaucratic structures (entrepreneurial) lack task standardization. It is common in small business organisation for the simple task solutions. The leader at the strategic level makes the major decisions and one on one communication, centralized. Development and growth are effectively managed.
If fully developed, it compares similarly to other organisation as nom-mechanical production compares to mechanized production. Entities such as personal costs and strict subordination are kept at optimum levels in bureaucratic forms of administration. Standardization degrees are available in these structures. This structure is suited for large firms or organisations with tall structure. Characterized by, clearly defined responsibilities and roles, respect for merit, and hierarchical structures.
Post-bureaucratic Structured Model
It takes the specific and the generic form. In the first form, it could include culture, Total Quality Management, matrix management and others. However, hierarchy remains with organization being rule bound. It focuses on the organization’s culture rather than the structure.
The functional structure encompasses the employees in the organization’s functional decisions performing specific tasks such as engineering departments tend to be staffed only with relating engineers. Efficiency in operation can be achieved through this scenario within groups or departments. The structure may hole a drawback on poor or no communication means between the factoring entities in an organization thus slowing and reducing the organization’s flexibility. The structure is best suited for goods and services standardization at low cost and in large volumes. The functional structure coordinates and specifies the tasks centrally making production of limited services and goods predictable and efficient. To simulate a sample business, the management may decide to produce a certain raw material instead of purchasing it.
The team structure applies in the small businesses where the team structure defines the entire construction of the organisation. Teams are presented vertically or horizontally. An example is that of distributed grocery stores each composed of at least ten self-managed teams forming a small section of the main team. Flexibility of the team players directly benefits the business.
The structure divides the organization into subgroups that are fully equipped with the necessary resources. It is department based.
Hierarchy-community Phenotype Organization Structure Model
The model prevails in the 21st century and it is not purely hierarchical where the environment contributing to the phenotype of the organization directly influences the employees’ formal, informal and hierarchical participation. Each organization posses differing phenotypes on the spectrum based on flat and purely hierarchical structure.
(Hardman 2009, p. 43)
Sample Simulation on Classification of Ages on a Business Employee Database
Decision making models include the rational models, the intuitive, 5-7/9 step decision models and the rational-iterative models. The decision makers must keep in mind that decision making is similar to solving this problem. The problem is the poor output. This accomplishes the basic principle of decision-making, identification of the drawback. Associated concepts include the pros and cons of the decision, number of available alternatives, relevance of the available information, and pattern recognition. Decision trees may be used to alive to solutions.
(Hardman 2009, p. 44)
For successful businesses, contemporary management skills are of importance. The organisational structure, its management, planning, decision making and its leaders’ traits dictate the level of the business’ prosperity.