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Free Example of Bullying among New Graduate vs Experienced Nurses Essay

Questionnaire Type

The Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ) is preferred in carrying out the proposed study. The NAQ is a 22-item bullying scale where each item has five possible responses (Simons, Stark & Demarco, 2011). When using the scale, a researcher is accorded an opportunity to create interval data as opposed to ordinal data. Hence, the scale is significant in facilitating a multivariate analysis of weighted responses based on behavior frequencies. The possible responses are the following: Never – 0, Now and Then – 2, Monthly – 6, Weekly - 25 and Daily – 125. When creating an interval scale, all responses are summed up.

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Brief Summary

The nursing profession is critical in society. Just like any other profession, several challenges affect its operations. In particular, Simons and Mawn (2010) observed that many nurses found their working places harmful and hostile. Nurses also face harassment, assault, bullying and intimidation. In order to increase the value of the profession to the society, it is significant to understand its problems, and to establish mechanisms to address them. The proposed research seeks to understand the experiences associated with bullying among new graduate nurses versus those of experienced nurses. A correlational research design is proposed in order to attain the objective of the present study.

Purpose and Rationale

From the background it emerges that bullying has negative effects. In particular, Simons and Mawn (2010) observed that it was necessary to develop strategies to reduce instances of bullying in the nursing practice. From the literature, it also became apparent that no study had proposed solutions to the problem. Thus, clarity of the topic is required. The proposed study considers the question: What are the experiences of bullying among new graduate nurses versus experienced nurses?

As a profession, nursing remains essential to social welfare. Hence, conducting a study that enhances the society’s understanding of the profession has immense value. Similarly, from the background information, it emerges that in any occupational set-up, organizational effectiveness is a primary concern. Hence, organizations look for ways to improve performance. Since bullying has a negative effect on individual and organizational performance, understanding of the problem is necessary. In particular, it is desirable to understand how bullying affects nurses’ experiences. A study of this nature is justified since it allows concerned parties to understand bullying experiences of new graduate nurses versus those of experienced nurses with a view to informing the development of targeted interventions and support systems to redress the problem.

Participants

I intend to select a sample of 200 nurses to take part in the study. The sample will include 100 graduate nursing professionals and 100 experienced nurses. Since the percentage of females is higher than that of male nurses, 70% of the participants will be female. Regarding race, the proposed study would focus on White Americans, African Americans and Asian Americans. For the new graduate nurses, preference will be given to the ages between 18 and 24. On the other hand, experienced nurses will be over the age of thirty. However, it is important that experienced nurses have served as nurses for a period of not less than 7 years.

Full Description of the Study Design, Methods and Procedures

The proposed research design is correlational. Hence, as a recall survey instrument, Negative Acts Questionnaire will be employed. Notably, administration of questionnaires may take the form of face-to-face administration, which entails interviews and presentation of questionnaire items orally. Paper-and-pencil administration is another form which involves the presentation of questionnaire items in writing. In the proposed study, I will mail questionnaires to the target population.

Data Storage and Analysis

Data generated from the study are to be monitored since the data are related to sensitive issues. Under the provisions of data monitoring, the main objective is to protect research subjects by ensuring they are not subjected to undue risks. Research participants should be also allowed to take part in a study without undue influence. The provisions also encourage reviewing an interim analysis of data in a manner that does not unmask participants. Through encryption computer programs, it is possible to ensure participants` anonymity. In addition, passwords, which are only known to the researcher, will be used to protect data.

The data collected will be presented in tables and graphs. Through the use of descriptive and inferential statistics, the collected data will be analyzed. When describing the data, I will focus on the characteristics of respondents, and I will use correlation measures to make conclusions.

Recruitment

In order to maximize cooperation, I plan to lobby the hospital staff to encourage their nurses to take part in the study. Thus, the Massachusetts university hospital staff is expected to help in ensuring maximum participation. The population of the study is the nursing community. The study will draw its sample from the non-managerial registered nurses. Based on their years of services (for new graduate nurses –less than 7 and for experienced nurses – 7 or more years), 200 hundred nurses will be selected.

Consent

From above, it is clear that those individuals who will take part in the study are over the age of 18. Hence, they are mature enough to make decisions regarding taking part in the proposed study. I intend to issue consent forms to potential participants. Those who complete the forms will participate in the study. Persons from vulnerable groups will not be included in the study.

The proposed study will not seek Waiver of Documentation of Signed Informed Consent since the research presents only minimal risk of harm to subjects, and does not involve procedures for which written consent is required outside the research context since I intend to use mailed questionnaires.

Provisions for Participant Confidentiality

Maintaining anonymity in research is critical when a study touches on sensitive information. In the proposed research, some statements are related to personal matters. In addition, the statements reflect on the overall work environment. Hence, organizational and personal matters may arise. In order to avoid conflicts, I intend to keep the responses confidential. In case of a requirement to use specific responses to illustrate findings, I intend to employ the use of pseudo names to protect the respondents’ identities.

Time Cost to Participants

The time required to participate in the study will range from 7-15 minutes depending on a respondents’ speed. The respondents will be required to fill in the questionnaires at a time of their choice. Hence, the time-cost factor will not be an issue.

Incentive Information

The study participants will not be compensated. Instead, I will promise the respondents that they will receive a copy of the study results once the project is completed.

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Benefits to Participants and/or Society

By taking part in the study, the participants would contribute to knowledge creation. As already pointed, knowledge is critical in addressing social issues such as bullying. Hence, taking part in the study will allow the participants to be part of the process of understanding nursing concerns and development of solutions intended to solve those concerns. The society is the biggest winner in such endeavors since the study raises the question of bullying which affects not only the nursing profession, but also many other professions.

Risk Level

The proposed research seeks to document issues affecting nursing professionals. The intention is to establish facts regarding working experiences. Hence, the research does not raise expectations that pose harm to participants. Thus, the probability of exposure to harm is no more than what occurs in normal research settings, and is viewed as minimal risk. However, the risk of psychological harm to those who have been victims of bullying remains real.

Full Description of Risks and Measures to Minimize Risks

It has been already indicated that the research is a minimal risk exercise. The only anticipated risk is psychological. However, it is important to note that a possibility of breach of confidentiality and emotional distress is real. Regarding breach of confidentiality, it is noted that in most cases, nurses are expected not to disclose working issues to third parties. However, taking part in a study requires one to be truthful when providing information. This will put the participating nurses in a conflict. However, the promise not to disclose information given should allow nurses to divulge accurate and correct information. The issue of emotional distress emerges since nurses who were victims of bullying may be pained because of being reminded about their tribulations. This may be more pronounced when a participant is facing bullying at the time of the study. However, the promise to understand the problem better in order to propose strategies to address it should encourage nurses to provide data necessary to complete the project.

Conflict of Interests

The issue of conflict of interests emerges when a participant is undivided on study and working place demands. Given the potential conflict of interests, participants are requested to disclose or put aside personal considerations that may undermine the study. For the principal investigator, there is no conflict of interests because the study is only intended for scholarly purposes.

Proposed Research Translation

For research to have an impact, its translation into actual practice is mandatory. In order to increase the chances of findings being translated into use, I intend to seek for the publication of the findings of the study in electronic and print media. Such media are critical in increasing the accessibility of the findings. In addition, such publications as journals will be taken into consideration. Nursing set-ups will also be taken into consideration. However, presenting the research findings to learning institutions offers a commendable option to ensuring translation. This is held in regard to the idea that institutions have wider powers to influence nursing practice.

Proposed Research Interdisciplinarity

Combination of various fields to increase the value of the research findings is highly desirable. From the background of the study it emerged that bullying is a problem that affects various professions/fields. Hence, a study that considers bullying in a nursing profession is relevant to other disciplines. For that reason, development of policy recommendations would add an interdisciplinary element involving governance or policymaking. The study can also pose a question that triggers the thinking of professionals from other fields such as psychology or sociology. To achieve the goal, adaptation of theories related to such disciplines may also be helpful. The theories may be adopted to reinforce the theoretical framework of the study.

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