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Application Narrative

The project would be dedicated to the analysis of the current state of affairs in the area of impact of gender issues for the PR professional activity of females from Asian countries.

The subject of this project is the essence, core trends and specifics of the professional activity of females in the area of public relations in Asian countries.

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The significance of the project implies the urgency of the current question because there is a global trend of reaching the equality in the rights of males and females all over the world. Moreover, Asian counties and their progressive economical systems are tending to reach the same level of human rights - as it is currently common for the companies from Western countries.

In addition, such an area of business activities as public relations implies the following trend - information is used as the core tool for this type of business. It is shared, discussed, represented in different manners, in order to create a prescribed social opinion about the particular phenomenon, trend or social issue. While taking into account the fact that Asian culture implies a particular gender role for the females, the equality of rights in terms of gender is still an urgent question for the cultures and from the perspectives of social norms of Asian countries.

The area of interest of a researcher is chosen because of the involvement into the educational process in the multicultural environment, which in turn, implies different approaches towards the gender issue. Besides, getting an education in the area of PR involves an investigation of the set of factors, which make their impact on the professional activity of the further PR manager.

The core reason for undertaking this project is the urgency of investigated questions. It may be contributive to the society because in the timeframe of the 21st century, making a choice about professional activity and development is a responsible question. Profession should match the needs of the current society and meet the regulations, implied by its norms and values. Therefore, in case a woman from one of the Asian counties is willing to make a choice of her further professional activity in the area of public relations, she should realize the entire set of the barriers, which may occur in the timeframe of her career, development and growth.

This project may contribute to the society because it is aimed to represent the real state of affairs in terms of gender discrimination in business activities in Asia from the perspectives of public relations. In case this article is available for the females, who are making a decision about the further career, it may be contributive for their opinion forming about this area of professional activities and their potential perspective in this industry.

Background Context

The set of scientific investigations has been conducted in the area of gender inequality in the public relations segment. This phenomenon has been investigated form various perspectives and, as a result, there are different opinions about its extent and existence in the societies of Asian countries.

In the scope of the literature review section, miscellaneous scientific investigations of the gender inequality concern in Asian countries would be discussed, in order to address the exiting gap of this phenomenon in the scientific literature. It is essential to refer to the fact that scholars investigate gender inequality from the general perspectives in the Asian region, taking into consideration the specific features of professional activities of women in the area of public relations, etc. At the same time, insignificant part of scientific investigations is dedicated to the impact of the gender discrimination on the professional activity of females in this area in terms of their professional growth, options for self-actualization and in terms of getting equal professional and career rights with males.

Literature Review

There are different scientific researches, dedicated to the gender issue in Asian countries, some scholars have investigated this social phenomenon in general terms – one of them is Watson (2008). Others have dedicated this investigation to the public relations sector - Morimoto and Wrigley (2003); Aldoory et al (2008); Simorangkir (2011).

In the frame of literature review, additional attention of researchers has been paid to the evaluation of the types of organization, where the positions in top management are occupied by women. Such investigation has been conducted by Goodman et al (2003). Authors have evaluated that the core characteristics of the establishments, where the top positions are occupied by females, are the following: high management turnover, lower salary rates, and nonmanufacturing industries. The fact of existence of employees’ development and promotion strategy is translated into a set of options for females to occupy the top management positions. It is possible to state a fact that PR agencies belong to this type of organizations because the salary rate depends on the creativity of a particular employee, one’s decision making abilities and high management turnover is caused by specific of PR manager professional activity.

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While referring to the subject of investigation, it is possible to state a fact that among the other organizations, where women are employed in Asian countries, the top positions are occupied in the business entities and in the organizations of other types, where creativity and non-traditional approach towards doing business are required, such as PR or advertising agencies.

It is assumed by the authors that there are differences in authority and power between the management of top and lower level, but at the same time, such differences are not caused by the presence of females within the ranks of top management. Authors emphasize that the internal labor markets and philosophical approaches, concerning women’s job titles promotion, development and roles within the top management should be additionally investigated.

While discussing the role of gender inequality in women employment in PR industry, Morimoto and Wrigley (2003) have put an emphasis on the fact of rapidly growing field of public relations in Asia. Additional attention is paid to the trend of entering the field of public relations by increasing the quantity of females. The core reason for such trend, outlined by the scholars, is the fact that this area of business is more opened and, consequently, at the same time, less conservative to women.

Asian female PR professionals face a more complicated working environment in comparison to their male counterparts. Morimoto and Wrigley (2003) have conducted the research of the way, the job roles, responsibilities and difficulties at work perceived by female PR professionals from Korea, Singapore and Japan. Additional attention is paid by the authors to the core methods, used by females, for coping with the set of difficulties discussed above. The core findings of the study were the following: females are tending to deny the gender inequalities and other types of difficulties, while acknowledging these barriers and developing the set of managerial solutions for these issues.

Aldoory, Reber, Berger, and Toth (2008), in the scope of their investigation, have put an emphasis on the fact that public relations are significantly influenced by the issues of gender and power. This phenomenon has been investigated in terms of socially constructed norms, which, in turn, constrain the work of public relations practitioners. In the timeframe of last decade, the power and influence have been explored by the authors and, as a result, the "power relations" perspective for PR has been developed. (Aldoory et al 735-750).

Simorangkir (2011) has considered that there are the following impacts of the public relations industry feminization in Indonesia: public relations profession’ degradation, male practitioners are considered as gay, allocation of low budget, encroachment, sexual harassment in the workplace, etc.

Finally, a new area of investigation in the scope of the study, conducted by Watson (2008) was “management of relationships”. Essential directive for the further research is set by the findings of this research - gender issues in PR. The core purpose for setting further direction is ensuring that professional bodies, academics, students and other researchers allocate their resources wisely by targeting those areas, which are most essential for the discipline.

Structure, Design, and Style

Research would combine the empirical study of the relevant literature sources and conducting the qualitative research - investigating the opinion of females, who are employed in the PR agencies in Asian counties. The questionnaires would be provided to the respondents via the means of e-mail. Afterwards, the structural analysis of collected data would be conducted, in order to approve or reject the hypothesis about the strong impact of the gender discrimination on the employment of females in the PR industry in Asian countries.

Ancillary Materials

Questionnaire would be developed to investigate the opinion of females, who are employed in PR agencies. It would consist of eighth direct and indirect questions.

Budget

In the scope of research, not less than 30 literature sources would be used to investigate the gender discrimination concern at the working place of PR managers in Asia from different perspectives.

Distribution

After submission, this work would be available in the World Wide Web, in order to assist the rechargers in their theoretical investigations and target audience of the research – females from the Asian counties - in terms of developing the rationalistic approach towards making a choice of their profession.

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