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Abstract

Australia is a large continent with a wide range of climate zones. The zones range from arid and semi-arid climate especially in the interior, wet tropics commonly in the north, and alpine climates in the south-east Australia. The climatic zones are influenced by different high and predominant weather and climate patterns. Different regions of the Australian continent are thus affected by incredibly diverse climate extremes. In 2010, for example, Victoria experienced a very dry year compared to the rest of Australia, which all received relatively adequate rainfall.

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Victoria suffers due to diverse climatic conditions. The climate varies from semi-arid and hot temperatures at the north-west parts, to temperate and breezy climate down at the coast. The main land feature in Victoria is the Great Dividing Range. The range creates a cool and mountain climate in the centre of the state. The temperatures are high during the summer and low throughout the winter period. The hot temperatures often give way to major droughts.

The highest rainfall is received in regions found in the high altitude. Rainfall in Victoria raises beginning from the north towards the south parts of the state. Annual rainfall is about 1,600- 250mm in some parts. The hills and mountains in the middle of Victoria, on the other hand, experience snow. Rainfall is usually experienced during the winter season. Precipitation is, however, experienced during summer while rainfall is seldom enough for farming in the region.

Introduction

Over the last one decade, Australia has experienced rapid climate change (Gulbenkian Think Tank on Water and the Future of Humanity & Fundacao Calouste 2014). The most extreme problem with this has been associated with the amount of rainfall received in the country. The changes in the climate have been associated with social and economical transformations. The changes in social and economic activities have caused environmental degradation, resulting in decreased rainfall in the last decade (Hammer, Nicholls & Mitchell 2000). Some of the major consequences have been low stream flows and demographics, which are conditions that have led to significant droughts in the area.

It is therefore important that the country be proactive and account for the rainfall amount in the region. The country needs to transform its social and economic activities in order to mitigate the impact of drought (Sivakumar & Ndiang'ui 2007). Victoria is a state located in the south eastern part of Australia (Jain, Agarwal & Singh 2007). The region has experienced very adverse drought conditions and has recorded the lowest rainfall amongst all the states in the country (Ji 2008). In addition, the area continuously recorded decreases in annual and seasonal rainfall totals from 1997 to 2013. This paper seeks to investigate the manner in which the seasonal and annual rainfall is calculated and provide a forecast of rainfall treads for the region. But the question is: why has the last decade been so dry in this region?

Victoria experienced low rainfall from 1997- 2013 (Nagarajan 2009). The decrease in rainfall corresponds to a decline in SEA rainfall. Studies has shown that these low stream flows are due to drier autumns in the months between March and May which is expected to provide adequate rainfall for keeping the Victoria catchment areas sufficiently wet throughout the year. As a result, our research will investigate the question of what happened to Victoria's autumn rainfall. The reduction of Victoria's rainfall has led to a reduction of stream flows (Oliver 2005). There is thus a need to investigate the causes of the reduced rainfall in autumn and establish whether it is the real cause for the reduced streamflow in the region.

Background of the Thesis

During the period between 1997- 2013 serious rainfall deficiencies were recorded. The environmental movements and organizations in Australia indicate that it is the driest inhabited country. Research also shows that climate changes can lead to a deterioration of the natural ecosystem due to high temperatures and low rainfall. This reduces its ability to sustain the population. Consequently, there is need for environmental action.

The fact that Australia has a high population has probably led to the reduced rainfall. The large population has lead to increased water use, thus limiting water efficiency (Raison, Brown & Flinn 2001). As a result, it lead has to the drying out of streams. The lack of sufficient water in the ecosystem may be an indication of possible droughts.

The process of monitoring droughts Australia is conducted by the Meteorological department. The department constantly analyses the effects of rainfall both in the long-term and short term. The analysis circulates to a broad range of users for further analysis (Raison, Brown & Flinn 2001). Rainfall analysis can further be done by using the normalized vegetation index (NDVI). This is a satellite-based index commonly used for examining vegetation and drought circumstances.

Studies show that drought evolves slowly over duration of time. In addition, the results of droughts usually require a lengthy duration to come into effect. When these effects are perceived in the ecology they cause adverse impacts. Therefore, it is important to take useful mitigation and forecast drought possibilities to avert the most adverse impacts of drought. This research thus finds it necessary to develop mechanisms for monitoring drought. The mechanism should be able to warn of drought before its onset.

Research indicates that the universal device used for monitoring drought conditions is the drought index. Several drought indices are used for forecasting the possibility of an ongoing drought(Rossi, Vega & Bonaccorso 2007). This is then followed by the utilization of suitable alleviation measures. The drought policies for water resources management are also applied (Sivakumar & Ndiang'ui 2007). This is largely due to the fact that drought indices are articulated in numeric figures. When several drought indices are developed in a country, variable rainfall is attained, which is used for making predictions. The drought index is an effective method for forecasting drought especially in this study since it has the capability of presenting droughts on numerous time scales, and is appealing in terms of its simplicity and probabilistic nature (Sivakumar & Ndiang'ui 2007). In addition, it is suitable for monitoring the probability of drought in Australia. This because, it is easy to use it in orders to assess different climatic conditions and has accurate data that is easy to comprehend.

Importance of the Thesis

This thesis will contribute to weather forecasting and promote the environmental conservation theory. The research will enable an examination of rainfall data and forecast the probability of drought in Australia. It will also determine the causes of low streamflow and severe water scarcity in Australia. In addition, it will promote an understanding of rainfall data from 1997-2013 and depict the severe deprivation and dynamics of rainfall data during this period.

The study will also examine other sources of rainfall data as there will be no other available records until 2017. Through an in-depth study of two long catchment records of Victoria rainfall data, this research will produce primary data. The use of TREND and NSFM will enable the forecast drought in the future.

In addition, the study will provide practical applications for those seeking to manage low steamflow and water scarcity. By determining how changes in land use, management practices and climate become vulnerable and lead to low rainfall, the research suggest possible ways of promoting workplace healthy and safety.

Aims of Research

Research Objectives

  • To examine the rainfall data and the extent to which it affects the society
  • To identify and evaluate the demand and uses of rainfall in Australia.
  • To identify and analyse the amount of rainfall received in Australia.
  • To document treads and amount of rainfall received in Victoria.
  • To determine the causes of flow rainfall in the region. This involves identifying and describing the possible causes of low rainfall as documented by different scientific research.
  • To determine how the low rainfall affects the society and the region. This will also involve developing ways for forecasting drought in the region.

Research Questions and Hypothesis

Hypothesis

The study will presuppose that steamflows have a wide-ranging quantity of water. It proposes the following 2 hypothesis:

H1. Streamflows are low throughout the dry spell and high all through the wet season.

H2. Streamflows and rainfall data will provide adequate information for forecasting drought in Australia.

Research Question

Based on rainfall data analysis in Australia, can drought probability be discerned and forecasted? Is the use of TREND and NSFM adequate means for forecasting drought?

Literature Review

Traditionally, rainfall in Australia is fundamental for both rural and urban life. It is the major resource for domestic use. Rainfall thus greatly affects and influences the lifestyles of Australian citizens.

Goldstein (2006) suggested that, rainfall data is difficult to accurately acquire due to the lack of a systematic method of rainfall measurement. The amount of rainfall received also differs from one region to another. In short, rainfall is not evenly distributed in any given area or country. The knowledge of rainfall data entry and analysis also lacks a theoretical framework and a comprehensive body of knowledge. This is mainly caused by:

  • The lack of a clear definition of what constitutes rainfall data
  • The lack of adequate data sources on sections and whole region. Consequently, it leads to tedious work on the part of researchers in their quest for data for analysis.

Under normal climatic conditions, drought undergoes through natural fluctuations. The study of this paper seeks to determine how climate and especially rainfall has progressed over yearly and inter-yearly from the interlude between 1997- 2013. As a result, this study will be able to determine the transformations for low stremflow and local precipitation and hence forecast the probability of drought in future. Drought brings a lot of calamities and is, thus, a very insightful aspect of climate change.

Studies have shown that one way through which drought can be predicted is through the use of the numerical model on oceanic – atmosphere. The oceanic atmosphere is said to have hydrologic drive that causes rain or aridity. The approach can be used to determine and assess the potential of droughts in the subsequent seasons using the TREND and NSFM software. The approach however is limited due to knowledge and numeric as they may contain biases.

Gleick (2000) notes that droughts are sometimes caused by changes in atmospheric pressure especially along the drainage systems. He further cites the importance of understanding winds and their changes as a key to understanding intensity, frequency and location of rainfall and thus making it easy to determine the probability of drought and other climatic changes. The observation thus denotes that drainage system moisture leads to rainfall or aridity (Werick & Whipple n.d).

Droughts are common phenomena in some parts of Australia and can occur during the different seasons of the year. Studies show that droughts may last for a few months in a spatial of a given km. The droughts can also extend to large areas if mitigations are not taken to prevent it in due time (Werick & Whipple n.d.). The dynamics of droughts in Australia can further be complicated due to its location. The location does not favour the movement and direction of winds through the drainage basins, especially in Victoria. Consequently, this greatly affects rainfall distribution in the region.

The supporting literature indicates that the scaling of droughts is greatly determined by the precipitation input, drainage networks and human activities in an area. Evidence indicates that the scaling of droughts also varies across the type of activities in a given location. Forecasting drought and drought periods using physically based approaches is a challenge as it involves complex inter-twins of human activities and drainage system.

Scientific studies indicate that climate change is a contributing factor in low streamflow (Bren 2014). Climate change according to Goldstein (2006) is defined as the direct and indirect features of human activities that modify the composition of the global environment. These activities can cause environmental degradation over a period of time (Hammer, Nicholls & Mitchell 2000). The activities can cause serious disruptions like droughts. Drought is a natural part of climate that is characterised by a deficiency of precipitation over a period of time (Jain, Agarwal & Singh 2007). Drought is a major issue in society as it affects human beings, crops and livestock thus disrupting livelihood. Studies show that drought is the result of deficiency in precipitation, leading to water shortage especially for agriculture and livestock use (Jain, Agarwal & Singh 2007). The impacts of drought, however, can be forecasted using the NSFM software and hence can be controlled and prevented.

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Drought can also be termed as a period with declining moisture. The declined moisture affects crops and other aspects of the ecosystem. Agriculture is, however, the first part to be affected by the lack of adequate soil moisture supply required for plant growth. This can result in food shortages and famine.

Droughts may also be termed as a period of inadequate water available for the use of a given resource management system (Beven 2012). This type of drought can result due to climatic factors that affect the streamflow. The water supply in streams, reservoirs and lakes is low and thus incapable of accomplishing activities such as the generation of hydro electrical power, irrigation, supply of domestic water, protection of endangered species, ecosystem management, recreation, tourism and transportation.

Scientific studies designates that drought affects the social and economic factors of Australia. Drought has, also, an impact on the supply and demand for goods and services. The supply of goods mostly depends on the climatic conditions, especially rain. The supply of products, therefore, varies depending on water availability.

The meteorological reports state that drought has three key features. They include duration, intensity and spatial coverage. Intensity is used to refer to the quantity of impacts of water shortage. Duration, on the other hand, refers to the specific period of time in which there is a shortage of rain. The magnitude drought is related to amount of time starting from the onset of rain shortage to its duration and intensity. The amount of time taken by a drought differs from one location to another. The location affected by drought advances slowly and its intensity also shifts from time to time (Wilhite 2005). The spatial timing of drought is very crucial as it defines its implications.

The climate models in Australia illustrate that some of its regions can expect an increase in rainfall, particularly in the tropics and in areas of high latitude (Boken, Cracknell, Heathcote & World Meteorological Organization 2005). The other regions can expect low rainfall. Altitude is therefore an essential factor in determining precipitation variation and distribution (Botterill & Wilhite 2005). Areas that already receive an abundance of rain also expect to receive even more rainfall during the winter and low rainfall during the summer (Botterill & Wilhite 2005). As a result, this creates more variation of rainfall distribution in Australia.

The variations in precipitation affect the timing and magnitude of droughts and alter the groundwater recharge rates (Botterill & Wilhite 2005). Plant and vegetation growth rates as well as patterns are also affected directly by the changes in rainfall quantity and distribution. This in turn affects agriculture and the ecosystem as a whole. A decreased precipitation leads to low streamflow. It causes a fall in the water tables, water reservoir, wetlands, rivers and lakes. As a result, this leads to low rates of evapo-transpiration and evaporation (Boken, Cracknell, Heathcote & World Meteorological Organization 2005).This ultimately results in an increase in the probability of drought.

A workplace is said to be the physical location where a person works. The place can be at home office or even a factory (Henderson-Sellers & Pitman 1991). The research of this proposal, however, defines a work place as a factory where a person works. A work has the responsibility of promoting quality health and safety to its employees (Henderson-Sellers & Pitman 1991). Health and safety in a work place refers to the process of upholding practices and procedures that are necessary for the well-being of both employees and employers. A workplace (factory) need to maintain healthy and safety practices that protects its workers from both direct and indirectly (Cabrera & Garcia-Serra 1997). In Australia, nevertheless, workplaces fail to advocate for these practices. This dissertation seeks to identify ways in which these practices are not upheld and their impacts to the environment.

The supporting literature indicates that there is a lot of environmental degradation in Australia (Oliver 2005). The increase in carbon emissions from cars and factories are said to contribute to and encourage drought in the country.

Due to lack of health and safety in factories, there is a high quantity of gas emissions from the industries (Raison, Brown & Flinn 2001). The biggest culprit that leads to low rainfall in Australia is the excessive quantity of harmful gases that result in the degradation of the environment (Oliver 2005). The gases are released from different industries. The most common gases that are emitted are S02, C02 and NH3. There are however more gases but these are the major contributors of depletion of the ozone layer, leading to global warming. As a result, it increases the probability of drought in Australia. Subsequently, it affects workers indirectly as they are subjected to suffer the consequences of drought. The gas emissions also affect workers directly as they sometimes inhale them and they affect their lungs and other body functions.

Deforestation in Australia also leads to the degradation of forest resources by clearing land for wood for use in companies (Raison, Brown & Flinn 2001). Deforestation is the basis for major environmental problems due to the fact that it leads to a decrease in the number of trees that are essential for the clean-up of the environment. Nonetheless, they provide oxygen and affect rainfall patterns. The cutting down of trees for industrial use, therefore, increases the probability of drought in Australia.

The mining industry contributes to the build up of pollution. This is mainly because the gases and materials extracted from the mines emit poisonous matter, which also leads to the depletion of the ozone layer. The fact that Australia has a high number of mining industries increases the probability of drought in the country (Oliver 2005). As a result, workers inhale the poisonous which affect their respiratory system. In addition, they suffer the consequences of drought.

Liquid industrial wastes are another consequence of by products from industries which promote environmental degradation (Raison, Brown & Flinn 2001). Waste products from petroleum industries, chemical manufacturing industries, leather and tanning industries emit waste by-products which are released directly into the environment and streams. These products ultimately contribute to global warming thereby creating a higher probability of drought in Australia (Oliver 2005).

Statistics indicate that there is an increase in agricultural practices in Australia (Raison, Brown & Flinn 2001). Although the increase in agricultural practices is relatively low, it has nonetheless led to a rise in demand for resources and water from the atmosphere. As a result, this has led to an increase in the quantity of water needed in order to support the growing agricultural practices. In addition, the increased demand for available water has led to low stream flow and drought.

The population in Australia has many vehicles on the road (Raison, Brown & Flinn 2001). The number of vehicle is growing exponentially in this countries and this resulted in an increase in pollution that directly affects the environment. These vehicles cause pollution through emission of hydrocarbons. The hydro-chemical depletes ozone layer and affects the amount of rainfall received in the country (Oliver 2005).

Factories also release very toxic pollutants (Raison, Brown & Flinn 2001). These pollutants are not emitted directly, but are released when pollutants react amongst themselves. The non-burnt hydrocarbons and nitrous oxides are two such pollutants. They have adverse impacts on the ozone layer. The pollutants lead to the formation of stratospheric clouds. They also increase the probability of subjecting worker to drought- related consequences.

The adaption of practices such as the overuse of fertilizers on farming land, shifting agriculture and overgrazing cause environmental degradation (Raison, Brown & Flinn 2001). These practices are disastrous and are even against agricultural policies. The practices degrade farming land and create soil erosion that causes silting in rivers and water reservoirs (Oliver 2005). The soil degradation becomes a constant cycle and ultimately causes desertification due to drought caused as a result of these processes.

Literatures indicate that rapid and unplanned expansions of factories in Australia have led to environmental degeneration. It leads to widening up of the gap and demand for infrastructural services such as housing, energy, transport, water supply, sewerage and recreational amenities hence leading to degradation of environment (Shaw & Nguye 2011). It results to depletion of available water leading to low sreamflow, as well as, generation of waste products which directly or indirectly affects the workers through pollution of environment finally leading to low rainfall (Henderson-Sellers & Pitman 1991).

The government policies in Australia have failed to develop well defined policies to fully protect workers in factories and prevent environmental degradation (Henderson-Sellers Pitman 1991). The government needs to carefully and fully protect employees by developing policies that secures the health, safety and welfare of persons at work and to protect others against risks to health and safety in connection with the activities of persons at work (Bryant 1997). It should, also, develop ways of controlling and managing the use of dangerous substances, in addition, to controlling release of certain emissions into the atmosphere. These forms of pollution increase the probability of drought in Australia.

To mitigate drought possibilities, can easily done using TREND and NFSM software. Drought forecasts are very useful for monitoring and controlling the impact of drought. TREND is used to aid statistical testing for trend, randomness and change in rainfall data. NSFM, on the other hand, is a non-parametric climatic forecasting model. It easily forecasts continuous probability of drought thus prompting need for adoption of control measures.

This paper seeks to bridge the gap that exists on drought range in intensity, duration and spatial extent. By adapting healthy and safety measures across all factories in Australia, the drought probability, intensity, duration and spatial time will fall drastically. The fact that drought occurs as a slow but creeping disaster will also be reduced through the use of health and safety practices at workplace. The cumulative drought impacts will also be controlled through the use of these safety measures. This paper thus finds it necessary to closely monitor and forecast drought in order to come up with ways for managing and controlling it.

The studies in this paper indicate that low rainfall is as the result of climate change caused by a lack of observance of work place health and safety (Wilhite 2005). Societal behaviour further accelerates climatic change and thus leads to low rainfall. The use of rainfall data to forecast drought helps keep the monitoring and controlling warning systems in society and the work place in check. The use of NSFM software for forecasting drought is not only an asset in Australia but also an important aspect for preserving the future. It is thus an essential drought forecasting and management tool. It is for this reason that this research suggests that further developments on the software will promote and develop very accurate drought forecasts (Wilhite 2005).

The use of the TREND and NSFM was born out of the urgency to mitigate and respond to drought. Unless the streamflow of Australia is closely monitored, the country may never know when it is facing an impending drought. The software is able to recognize the possibility of drought and to determine its severity and therefore gives leeway on ways of monitoring and controlling the drought.

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Methodology

The method of research to be used in this study is properly designed and chosen so as to ensure that accurate data is obtained. The data will also promote analysis and the deduction of conclusions in order to foster a better understanding about rainfall data for drought forecasting in Australia.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this paper is to obtain insight on the rainfall data in Australia in order to propose further recommendation and forecast drought in that country.

Due to the above reason, this paper will use explanatory approach. The explanatory approach is used when a lot of information about the condition at hand is unclear. The objective will be to achieve familiarity about rainfall data in Australia and gain a deep understanding of the situation.

Collection of Meteorological Data

In order to achieve the objectives, this study data will involve collecting primary and secondary data. The secondary data will help in providing background information. It will build quite constructively the project in order to comprehend the study survey. This research will collect the primary data in two ways. First, a questionnaire survey will be conducted on different localities in Victoria and other states in Australia. Secondly, information will be collected from environmental scientists, hydrologists, researchers and consultants based on interviews.

Sampling Design

Samples will be taken from different populations and stakeholders. This study will identify and sample different populations. The primary data will be collected using the questionnaire survey technique. The study will randomly select a population sample for questionnaire. The sample will entail 100 questionnaires designed for environmental scientists, hydrologists, researchers and consultants for sampling purposes.

In addition, an interview survey will be conducted. Interviews will be carried out on the sample population and stakeholders. The interviews will involve the environmental scientists, hydrologists, researchers and consultants.

Questionnaire Survey

The study shall use questionnaires as a self-reporting tool to gather data on variables of this research. The questionnaire will also involve closed-ended questions to capture responses from different stakeholders including the environmental scientists, hydrologists, researchers and consultants. The questions will narrow down to ensure that all fields of enquiry are catered for. As a result, it will aid the researcher in the analysis of the acquired data.

Interview Survey

Interview survey will be used to attain the objectives of this survey. The interviews will be conducted with environmental scientists, hydrologists, researchers and consultants through a guided discussion. The interviews for this project will involve semi-structured interview questions. The choice of these interviews will be well-designed depending on the interviewee and ensure imperative adaption throughout the interviews.

The closed-ended questions could potentially lead to bias because the respondents are limited in how they are able to respond specific questions. They therefore cannot give alternative answers or provide more in-depth details apart from what is asked in the questionnaire. The TREND and NSFM software is not able to detect such circumstances and only uses the collected data.

In addition, the interviews could be expensive and time consuming and may result in biased information. The TREND and NSFM software is not able to detect biased data acquired through the interview survey technique of data collection.

Data Analysis

Data Entry and Coding

The data acquired from the interviews will be transcribed and used to forecast drought. The quantitative precipitation data will be documented and entered onto a spreadsheet. This data shall subsequently be run on TREND and NSFM software for further scrutiny.

Inferential Statistics

The t-test will also be used to compare the mean for both the wet and arid seasons. The TREND and NSFM software will also be used to determine if the available rainfall is at the adequate mean levels. The data will also be tested and run by twelve methods in TREND. The members will use 4 methods to test for 6 selected data. The data will be submitted on the NSFM software in order to predict the forecasting for the future .This research will also determine what to do with the predictions acquired and explain why they were found.

Operation Methods

The knowledge acquired in this study will ensure a better understanding and analysis of seasonal forecast. The research will examine the stream flows, land use, water storage systems, water users, consultants and researchers. The research will be done in three stages:

Stage 1

The researchers will collect data from different target user groups including environmental scientists, hydrologists, researchers and consultants.

Stage 2

The data collected will be run through TREND to facilitate statistical testing for trend, transformation and randomness in a time series data. The data will go through the 12 statistical tests in the software. The research will then understand and analyse the statistical tests. The tests will be used to determine changes in hydrological data caused by changes in climate, land use and management practices.

Stage 3

The researchers will use NSFM software to predict the forecasting streamflow for several months. The probabilistic streamflow will be used to provide indications for the future drought possibilities. Still, they will give the way forward on the predictions.

Data Analysis

The findings of this proposal project, therefore, will be used to evaluate rainfall data which will enable forecasting drought in Australia. The findings will as well be used for correctional purposes on current behaviour in the country that promote environmental degradation leading to low streamflow and, eventually, drought.

Workplace Health and Safety

This study defines a work place as a factory where a person works. Factories need to maintain health and safety. Factories’ health and safety helps to promote the environmental degradation aspects and impending impacts all through the product’s life in a factory (Wilhite 2005). It focuses on raw materials, production, packaging, use and disposal. The innovation and production processes need to consider the availability resource materials. Workplace and healthmeasures impact on production process in society. It considers all inputs and outputs at different stages of life cycle (Wilhite 2005). In addition, it considers different categories of environmental degradation in use of a specific resource, the impact on human and wildlife health.

Natural and non-renewable resources are continuing to decline. The laws and regulations in Australia mandate that companies create and use sustainable and environmental friendly resources. Promoting factories and health safety and practices involves use of conservative and sustainable resources. The companies, thus, need to revolutionize and develop innovative methods of production in order to produce goods and services (Wittwer 2012). Innovation has a valuable impact on the accomplishment of sustainable development. Companies need to embrace innovation as a tool for achieving sustainability (Wilhite 2005). To achieve this, they should shift their source of raw material from wood to plastic materials in an attempt to prevent deforestation, soil erosion and air pollution.

Factories need to sustain zero level of waste by recycling products during the manufacturing process. Substances are used in consideration to their reusability after disposal. Lifecycle thinking encourages a wider view during the development of products and services. It takes into consideration the selection of material, production process and into consumer consumption and the end of lifecycle. (Wilhite 2005) observed that the global sustainable development challenges are by and large caused by emission of carbon. The use of electric energy in the production process and plastic as a raw material promotes healthy workplaces. Though the process may require a large amount of power, it uses renewable energy which emits less carbon emissions. Consequently, it considers the environment during the process of production. Factories, thus, should promote innovation which aims to generate new ideas in order conserve the society and environment. Due to growth in of the factories in Australia, the utilization of natural resources is increasing. The increase in factories leads to the demand and supply of resources. Bryant (1997) states that, carbon emissions impacts from factories causes pollution, soil degradation, deforestation, desertification and climatic change.

Continuous utilization of natural resources has elevated effects on the environment in Australia. It also contributes to global climate change and the crisis of non-renewable sources of power. Bren (2014) recommends the use of technology as a solution for the innovation of efficient and new sources of power to reduce the impact on the environment. It also ensures the consumption of less power. This helps to cut down cost of production thus improving a company’s global business operations since lower cost of production automatically leads to an increase in profits

Factories have to sustain health and safety practices. This can be achieved through conservation strategies, such as using new eco-friendly power source (Wittwer 2012). Factory innovation has to respond to consumers and government demand for environmentally-responsible products. Customers are demanding new and conservation-friendly products (Botterill & Wilhite 2005). As a result, factories should be compelled to create new technologies, innovations and strategies. The application of quality manpower, conservation of natural resources and ample capital will promote environmental conservation. The end result should be demonstrating a factory aimed at innovation to transform and conserve society.

Factories, also, need to adapt Lifecycle thinking (LCT). (LCT) encourages a wider view during the development of products and services (Gulbenkian Think Tank on Water and the Future of Humanity & Fundacao Calouste 2014). Factories need to aim for zero level of waste by recycling products during the manufacturing process. They also need to pioneer the beneficial and proactive use of life cycle thinking in product development. This can be attained by adopting and adapting LCT to design and modify technology. This will moved them towards the foundation and use of more design driven techniques for LCT. Their alliance with science has promoted the development of strong relationships with LCT in management, innovation and accounting.

In addition, factories need to consider local and national regulations concerning issues of corporate social responsibilities (Boken, Cracknell, Heathcote & World Meteorological Organization 2005). They should always check on employees’ workplace to ensure employee safety. The factories need to constantly strive to ensure favourable working conditions for their employees. They need protect employees, stakeholders and communities from environmental harm during the production process. Therefore, LCT is an essential aspect in designing, planning, controlling and improve an organisation.

Use of capacity building helps fill the gap that exists between innovation and production process (Boken, Cracknell, Heathcote & World Meteorological Organization 2005). It is a systematic development of an organization’s internal systems. It aims at improvement of organization’s processes, infrastructure employees and its external relations. This is aimed at realizing success in the organisation. Capacity building seeks to improve the performance of vocations in units, departments and the whole organisation. It is essential as it aims at improving workplace performance through designed reflection, planning and action. In addition, it promotes health and safety in the workplace.

Capacity building is the in-depth development of the skills and resources to attain organizational objectives. Thus organizational capacity building involves organizational training. The use of board meetings helps to embrace capacity building. They facilitate in getting updates and implementing changes in technology. Meetings provide a platform for discussion on changes. For example, changes in technique of production, prices and existence of latest equipment. Companies can build capacity by developing and improving their infrastructure, products and production process. They can move from use of wood to plastic. In addition, they can expand variety of components for example gears, motors floors, universal joints and flags. They can adapt technology and use of computer. These changes in design and products from traditional to modern product have helped to increase factories healthy and safety.

In re–building its capability, work places need to create a very skilled and empowered workforce (Boken, Cracknell, Heathcote & World Meteorological Organization 2005). The employees should work together as individuals, groups, teams to execute tasks. The organization should use a flexible and decentralized structure with a decentralized authority to manage departments. Education and training should be availed constantly to all employees. The training needs to focus on developing employee safety and health (Boken, Cracknell, Heathcote & World Meteorological Organization 2005). Organisations should enlighten employees on the need to learn, develop and to build strategies into promote their health and safety. This must be controlled and designed to improve productivity control environmental degradation.

The problem of low streamflow can be solved through water management. Water management practices are flexible by nature. They involve adoption to of healthy safety measures at work places. These measures may however be expensive to a company. Prevention is always important as they help evade high costs and impacts caused by drought.

Summary

In summary, health and safety measures at factories can prevent pollution. Toxic substances from industries contribute greatly to environmental degradation. The emissions form layers in the atmosphere that result to little or no rainfall. The use of NSFM software helps to forecast drought but cannot prevent it. Companies and industries in Australia need to heed and take charge of the drought analysis based on the TREND and NSFM software. Factories therefore need to observe and maintain health and safety measures in order to evade the drought epidemics.

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