The problem of food quality and safety is vital for every person. This is an important task facing not only the workers of the food industry; it is subject to every person in the world. Our health, working capacity, quality of life, both health and life of future generations depends on what we eat. How is this food safety provided? For this purpose, the world community has already developed a set of methods and ways to impact food producers. There are various international standards helping to provide a high-quality output at all stages of food production.
Ensuring food safety is a very capacious concept containing a set of items, each of which influences the quality and safety of products at separate production phases and during the whole production process. The food quality and safety management system are a complex of the organizational actions providing the food quality, which, finally, influences the safety of food production.
The safety of food raw materials can be characterized as “a set of their properties, which are not harmful and dangerous to human life and health of the present and future generations under usual conditions of use”.
The toxic substances, which are present in the objects of the environment, and food contamination, in particular, can cause separate diseases or a risk factor for the development of various pathological conditions. The influence of food contaminants consists of both all-toxic effects on an organism and the emergence of the specific and remote effects (allergic, mutagen, teratogenic, or cancerogenic ones). Nowadays, the role of separate toxic substances in the development of some forms of cancer, diseases of cardiovascular and nervous systems, as well as a liver and kidneys is defined.
Food contains insignificant quantities of contaminant, whose content is essentially below the level of the established hygienic standards in modern conditions. At the same time, it is proved that a certain modifying action of chemical factors even of small intensity is able to cause a nonspecific influence on the health of a person. The system violation of the homeostasis of an organism lies in its basis. As a result of it, susceptibility to practically all diseases, connected with the influence of both ecological and social factors is observed. Therefore, the improvement of methodical approaches during the supervising of food safety indicators, examination of possible negative influence even of small doses of strange chemicals on the health of a population, an assessment of the food contribution in the general chemical body burden are important scientific and practical tasks.
In many countries, a number of normative documents, which contain the requirements for food safety, are developed. They are constantly reconsidered and improved in the process of obtaining new scientific data on the influence of strange substances on health; developments in the food industry; globalization processes of the food trade; improvements in the material equipment of sanitary-and-epidemiologic service laboratories; development of modern high-sensitivity methods of research. The monitoring concerning the safety of food raw materials and products is carried out by the heads and establishments of the state sanitary inspection.
Food is the most important factor of the preservation of health, normal growth, and development of children and teenagers. It prevents emerging of numerous diseases, maintains the high work capacity of the adult population, as well as facilitates active longevity. Diseases of a food origin have a considerable impact on health. Millions of people fall ill, and many of them die as a result of the use of unsafe products in food. It is necessary to provide the greatest possible safety of all the food products. The policy and actions concerning food safety should cover “a food chain” in all its stages – from production to consumption.