Type: Research
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Recently there have been attempts to reduce design history into a history consisting of signs and codes and maybe to a historical relationship between the signifier and signified and should be viewed as a generality of the previous labors of the iconological advance. This direction, named semiology, having been inclined by Saussurian linguistics, extensive iconological analysis has the notion of grammar and some other morphological characteristics of language including the meaning. However, the design history based completely on iconological documents and also semiological considerations has its own limitations although it is applicable in many areas. It can only be related to products that have been made as symbolic objects, with the purpose of signifying.

In culture development, a huge number of synthetic items are not made to simply carry a meaning. Generally, machinery or instruments draw from decisions and abstract systems which are not to be found in iconology manuals or any system of coding. Likewise with a factory, an airport, a regional plan, a camp, a bastion by Vauban, or the projects for a new Hotel Dieu designed by the Academie des Sciencesjust before the French Revolution, and the norms inside those decisions destined them not for signification but for the production of utilities.

Care must be taken not to confound the machine case or any instrument used as a symbol in a painting or as an object trouvéon a platform in a gallery, with the case of a similar machine or instrument used in productive operations. Related confusions come up when a machine signifies the social or economic arrangement of its holder in addition to satisfying its part as a creator of utilities. Neither of the signifying functions deviates from the reality that machines and instruments can be used to generate energy fully, and not signification. The same argument can be derived that ritual props in archaic societies may not be not pure signifiers but stands in between signifiers and the machines as ancestors to both, and are different from both.

Wölfflin made a remark in 1888 and said that they still had to find a path that led from the scholar cell to the mason’s yard.

It, therefore, appears that the more collective history of design is required to accommodate the totality in design products: the objects of divination, the machines, the aesthetic objects, and the icons. A wider range of documentation must be searched, disregarding the type of thinking they reveal and regardless of the object used to which they recount.


This is an art movement that came up in Britain in the mid-1950s and also in the late 1950s in the United States. Pop art had challenged traditions by asserting that an artist’s use of the mass-produced visual commodities of popular culture is contiguous with the perspective of fine art. Pop is the removal of the material from its context and isolating the object, or combining it with other objects, for contemplation. The concept of pop art refers mostly to the attitudes that lead it to it.

Pop art was composed of techniques and themes widely drawn from the mass culture including, advertising, mundane cultural objects, and comic books. pop art is broadly expressed as a reaction to the then-dominant views of abstract expressionism as well as an expansion upon them.

Pop art, intended to utilize images of the admired artists as divergent to elitist culture in art, sensitizing the banal elements of any culture. It is also connected with the artists’ utilizing mechanical means in reproduction or in rendering techniques.

Most of the pop art has been considered incongruent, as the intangible practices that are often used which makes it hard for some to easily figure out. Pop art and minimalism have been considered as art movements preceding postmodern art or are some of the oldest examples of Postmodern Art themselves.

Pop art has often taken as its imagery which is been used in advertising. Labeling of Products and logos figures highly in the imagery preferred by pop artists. This is seen in the Campbell’s Soup Cans labels done by Andy Warhol. The labeling on the transport container containing trade items has been used as a subject matter in pop art, e.g.  The Warhol’s Campbell’s Tomato Juice Box 1964.

Pop art originated in North America and Great Britain and developed differently. In America, it showed a comeback to tough work of art and representational art as a reaction to artists’ use of mundane reality, impersonal, irony, and travesty to resolve the personal imagery and painterly looseness of Abstract Expressionism.

In contrast, the origin of Pop art in Britain, while using irony and parody, appeared to be more academic in the center of attention being on the dynamic and in paradoxical imagery of American culture as powerful, manipulative figurative devices that were disturbing whole patterns in life, at the same time improving the wealth of a society. Original pop art in Great Britain was an issue of thoughts fueled by the American popular culture from afar, while American artists were moved by the experiences of living within the culture. Pop art however was also a carry-over of some aspects in Abstract Expressionism, this included things such as a belief in the promise for art, particularly for the large-scale artwork. In the same way, pop art was both an expansion and a repudiation of Dadaism.

As pop art and Dadaism searched some of the similar subjects, pop art restored the destructive, anarchic and satirical, inclination of the Dada movement with a separate declaration of the artifacts of mass culture.

Among the artists seen as producing work heading to Pop art are:

Pablo Picasso,

Marcel Duchamp,

Kurt Schwitters,

Man Ray.

Jackson Pollock.

Andy Warhol

Andy Warhol was a popular American painter, filmmaker, and printmaker, who was a leading figure in the visual art movement the pop art. After a promising career as a business illustrator, Warhol became well-known around the world for his work as a professional painter, record producer, avant-garde filmmaker, author, and a public figure recognized for his attachment in wildly assorted social circles which included: distinguished intellectuals, bohemian street people,  Hollywood celebrities and as well as wealthy patrons.

Warhol has become the subject of several demonstrative exhibitions, books, and documentary films. He invented the widely used phrase “15 minutes of fame”. Andy Warhol Museum was made in his hometown of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in memory of his artwork and life.

The maximum price ever rewarded for a painting of Warhol is $100 million for a 1963 canvas titled Eight Elvises. This private deal was described in a 2009 article The Economist, which expressed Warhol as the bellwether in the art market. $100 million is a benchmark price that only Pablo Picasso, Gustav Klimt, and Willem de Kooning have attained.

Warhol was an extremely flourishing commercial illustrator by the beginning of the 1960s. His comprehensive and well-designed drawings for I. Miller’s shoes were chiefly popular. These designs consisted mostly of blotted ink drawings which was a technique applied in a great deal of his early art. Even though many artists of this era worked in business art, most of them did so tastefully. Warhol was so booming, however, that his outline as an illustrator had appeared to demoralize his labors to be taken acutely as an artist.

Pop Art became an experimental appearance that many artists were separately adopting; some of the pioneers, including Roy Lichtenstein, later become identical with the movement.

Warhol, who would later become popular as the Pope of Pop, turned to this new style, where popular subjects could be part of the artist’s palette.

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