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Introduction

Stereotypes are regarded as quite usual and even obligatory elements of our lives in the current course of time. They are perceived as properly organized and relevantly grounded images, opinions, and attitudes that are actually “prescribed” for implementation in the course of interactivity with a certain type of a person or with a certain type of situation.

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Literature Review

Gender stereotyping presents one of the most burning and controversial issues in the current course of time (Basow, 1992). It is so miscellaneous and complicated due to several reasons. One of the most crucial reasons comprises the fact that gender stereotyping deals with one of the most sacred and unequivocal, from the historic point of view, issues – paternal and maternal structure of the society. Besides, some researchers connect the issue of gender stereotyping even with religion and its vision of the place of the woman in the world, in family, in relationships. Moreover, in the current course of time, society has become so emancipated that sometimes it is hard to detect the excessive expression of gender stereotyping and women’s rights defense. The issues of gender stereotyping tend to overlap and create even more complications. The question of gender stereotyping might not date back to the story of Adam and Eve, but it certainly has produced lots of debates over the centuries, continuing to the present day (Bosner, 2007). Actually, the prevailing majority of all corporations in the USA publicly repudiate the notion of discrimination of any nature and reason. Though, the data of statistics prove the presence of both blatant and subtle stereotypes, connected with women placed in the roles of supporting and subordinate character, while the leading positions are occupied exclusively by men. Therefore, the crucial meaning of the proper issue comprehension and subsequent problem solution is apparent.

The notion of gender stereotyping appears to comprise the dual essence that is built up on the basis of the link formed between the self of the individual and gender, determining and differentiating attributes (Franz, 2009).

According to Staphanie Franz (2009), there are two types of gender stereotypes – descriptive and prescriptive. The first one concerns the outline of the attributes, roles, and features according to which the sexes appear to be different. This belief is based on data that is obvious and unequivocal. The second type of gender stereotyping is prescriptive gender stereotyping. It concerns the criteria according to which the sexes should be distinguished and are believed to differ.

It is obvious that gender stereotyping significantly impacts the individual’s self-perception, self esteem, as well as relationship, social and professional position, outlook, behavior, and relationship. The templates and samples of gender stereotyping appear to be finally accepted and implemented in real life.

The concept of gender stereotyping is excessively controversial. Therefore, it will be appropriate to dwell on the origins of gender stereotyping, especially at the stage where such stereotypes start the process of merging with opinions and beliefs concerning perfect qualities for success in the course of corporate management. In the United States, that process of merging usually takes place during the college years. By the time young adults enter college, they have developed beliefs about themselves, their career goals, and the values and attributes of people around them (Bosner, 2007).

The stereotype is often regarded as a trap in the society, where the majority and their opinion tend to rein. Besides, stereotypes are usually represented predominantly by the negative images and visions, and their diversity is displayed vividly in a range from the assumptions that “white men can’t jump” to the assumption that “girls can’t do math”. These stereotypes become pervasive and generally accepted by the majority in contemporary society. The power of stereotypes is comprised basically in their amazing ability to alter not only the occasional behavior of the individual who is currently holding a certain stereotype, though it may as well sufficiently impact more permanent and basic criteria of personal expression and identification – such as choices, preferences, thoughts and even outlook of the person. Claude Steele, a psychologist at Stanford University demonstrated that a stereotype about the way “ditzy blondes” and “forgetful seniors” usually behave, makes contemporary society sharply aware of how the community regards them. Actually, society is so painfully and apparently aware of the current course of time that, in fact, this stereotyping activity may affect the performance of these people on intellectual, personal, and other tasks (Brannon, 2005).

Moreover, contemporary scientists and researchers dwell on the concept of stereotype threat as the result of excessively important role it plays in the individual’s life. This threat may impact self-concept and performance of the individual.

There is a very interesting and challenging theory that is called the Doctrine of Two Spheres. This Doctrine concerns the belief that men’s and women’s interests tend to diverge sufficiently. As a consequence, men and women express and experience diverse interests and moreover – they have different areas of influence. Women tend to be more active and responsible in the course of such areas of influence as children and home, while men’s area of influence involves the outside world and work. According to Brannon (2005) “These two spheres are different, with little overlap, forming opposite ends of one dimension. This conceptualization of opposition forms the basis not only for social views of gender, but also for psychology’s formulation of the measurement of masculinity and femininity”.

Analysis of Organizations

The organizations for analysis in terms of investigation of the level of gender stereotyping implementation are the following: Microsoft Corporation and Apple Corporation. These organizations are of the worldwide scope and tend to represent the most efficient and relevant recipe of success. Besides, they are absolutely up-to-date and seem quite democratic. Therefore, it is even more interesting to analyze the human resources policy in the scope of such corporations and organizations, as they tend to present the future of the whole industry. They implement and benefit from the most innovative and creative approaches and this is the reason why they finally become the idols of the epoch.

Analysis of Apple Corporation in Terms of the Concept of Gender Stereotyping

Apple Inc. (Apple) was founded in 1977, on January 3. This company is famous worldwide in the current course of time. Apple Corporation designs, produces and markets diverse personal computers, media facilities and mobile communication, as well as digital music players which are ultra-modern and portable. Besides, the corporation deals with the sale of a variety of related peripherals, software and network solutions. Moreover, Apple Corporation provides uniquely significant services and supplies its customers with applications and third-party digital content. It is quite apparent that the given corporation is very influential in the current course of time. Therefore, its policy will be of great significance.

Steve Jobs accounted for the name of the company as being fun, spirited, and not intimidating. These characteristic features may be attributed to the whole corporation's essence. Besides, the goal of the company is proclaimed not the financial one. Apple, Inc. is said to be targeted at the following activity: to create and produce innovative, creative, and complex technologies and afterwards provide the customers with the best in quality and the easiest in use products and services. Furthermore, one more goal of the corporation is to present inevitable products, in comparison with the products of their rivals. Thus, is there any place for a woman in such a spirited and far from being the intimidating place?

The official website of Apple, Inc. provides the following data concerning gender stereotyping and the corporate recruitment system in the article “Apple Recruitment: Equal Opportunities & Diversity Policy”: “Apple Recruitment embraces diversity and will seek to promote the benefits of diversity in all of our business activities”. The corporation promises to seek to develop a corporate culture that would be proper, relevant and actually capable of reflecting the proclaimed policy. Apple, Inc. will strive to make sure that the customers of the company meet their own diversity goals and objectives.

Such an approach appears to be inevitably innovative and contemporary in its essence. The diversity presupposes the presence of female employees in the corporation. The stance of the company is expressed distinctly and clearly in the same article “Apple Recruitment: Equal Opportunities & Diversity Policy”. This article proclaims that Apple Corporation is to treat every professional equally, irrespective of sex, color, race, sexual orientation, marital or civil partnership status, gender reassignment, age, disability, nationality, religion, political beliefs or membership or non-membership of a Trade Union or spent convictions, etc. Apple Recruitment Team is targeted at providing the proper training for the corporate staff in equal opportunities practice.

Therefore, after the profound insight into the recruitment policy of the company, it is quite obvious that it appears to be successful, consistent and efficient in the course of its policy performance. Besides, it positively influences and motivates the effectiveness of the working process of the employees. The reason is the general atmosphere that presupposes multi-dimensional communication and organization of the leisure time together. Such methods tend to impact the outcomes of their mutual work and set the challenges, irrespective to the gender identification. Apple, Inc. proclaims the supreme significance of proficiency, ability to work efficiently in the team, and effectively cooperate with the colleagues.

One more guideline for proper and relevant recruitment process comprises the following aspect: the Apple Recruitment Team is targeted to provide the proper and consistent assessment of every candidate that is based exclusively on the candidate's professional qualities and merits, qualification level as well as abilities to perform the direct duties acquired by the chosen vacancy.

Furthermore, there is an interesting gender oriented policy concerning products of Apple Corporation. They are marked according to the gender. Though, the advertising campaign contains the data, symbols and indices targeted both at female and male costumers. There were different surveys on this topic. They revealed that the color of iPhone determines the sex of the person that purchases it. As a consequence, the study revealed that men predominately tend to choose space grey, whereas women obviously prefer the option of shimmering silver and a lighter tone of the phone. As Griffiths (2013) stated, “For the iPhone 5S, space grey accounts for 43 per cent of all sales of the handset. Interestingly the gold iPhone 5S, which was originally reportedly in short supply, accounted for 27 per cent of sales and was equally popular among men and women”. These facts reveal that gender stereotyping is still active and even popularized. Though, they do not tend to be excessive, negatively marked or unpredictable. Therefore, the final recommendation is to extend the gender equaling policy further on and to provide proper comprehension of this policy by the employers, employees, and customers.

Another corporation chosen for analysis is Microsoft. This corporation is regarded as supreme power company with the excellent staff, perfect products, as well as perfect vision of the business performance. The same approach concerns the recruitment activity of Microsoft Corporation. The major determining goals of the company are also not financially oriented (this aspect is similar to the major goals of Apple Corporation), but providing their consumers with high quality, high efficiency, and high level of brand identity products. Therefore, the corporation is constantly looking for consistent, effective, creative and eager to develop and improve themselves as employees. Actually, at this point, the question of gender stereotyping arises.

In order to illustrate vividly and persuasively the corporate policy concerning the gender aspect of recruitment process, it will be enough to describe the position of the Bill Gate’s wife of in the company.

Melinda Gates presents an exclusion of the whole sample pattern. The first most peculiar and extraordinary thing about her as a professional is as follows: she had received proper education of high quality, and, finally, found the job of her dream at that time. The most exciting and amazing thing about her employment situation is that Melinda Gates appeared to be the only woman with such an impressive level of proficiency and knowledge database among her colleagues. She was the only female employee among the managers. It was many years ago. Still, this fact is very significant and meaningful for the whole investigation of gender stereotyping implementation in practice in the course of company activity. The reason is that even at that time Microsoft Corporation realized the significance of a true professional for the company status and efficient performance. Besides, the Microsoft authorities realized the absurd nature of gender stereotyping and its destructive essence. Therefore, the Corporation allowed or even promoted Melinda to become a general manager. As a consequence, Melinda became the boss of 300 employees. This fact shows that a woman can not only master science and be a skillful employee. It is quite a vivid and persuasive example of the assumption that a woman just as well and successfully may be a directing, not only performing, power. Therefore, gender stereotyping is regarded as a narrow, insufficient and absolutely irrelevant issue in the contemporary course of time.

Moreover, Melinda managed to become Missis Gates. She charmed and conquered Bill Gates on the parking lot one day. First of all, she charmed him with her beauty. Then, she charmed him with the impressive level of her intellectual abilities and proficiency. Besides, she still remained a woman, with all the natural traits and features. Therefore, Bill Gates is married happily ever since their meeting. This is persuasive proof of unequivocally numerous abilities women possess as wives and as professionals. The kitchen is not the only place for women’s self expression.

The only recommendation for Microsoft Corporation in terms of gender stereotyping and the recruitment process is to supply the employers with proper instructions and guidelines for the recruitment process if there are any adjustments. The recruitment policy seems to be too good to be changed in the current course of time.

Conclusion

Thus, gender stereotyping does not prove itself as a consistent, efficient, and perspective theory. It comprises unfounded and unnecessary for the contemporary society restrictions and negative connotations. Therefore, they do not provide proper and relevant motivation for further development and improvement.

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