Turabian Style of Citation


Anyone who studies at the School of Divinity should find the School’s Turabian Guide a great help.

The Basic Formatting Rules of the Turabian Style

It is always wise to check what your institution, department, and professor require in terms of a paper’s formatting because they may have specific preferences.

Formatting of Margins

It is common practice to leave one-inch margins on all sides of the page. The rule you should stick to as standard is at least one-inch margins and not more than an inch and a half.

EssaysWriters.com’s sample Turabian paper has one-inch margins.

Fonts and Typeface

The recommended font type is Times New Roman and the recommended font size is 12pt.

Turabian requires that fonts are readable and no less than 10pt in size.

Line Space

It is a requirement of the Turabian style that papers are typed in double-spacing throughout except in the cases of table titles, captions for figures, block quotes, footnotes, endnotes, bibliographies, and reference lists.

How Pages should be Numbered

Number all pages from the first text page but do not number your title page.

Usually, numbers are placed in the top right-hand side of a page’s header or in a centrally-placed footer at the end of the page.

The page numbers in our sample paper are located in the center at the bottom of the page.

NB: If a table of contents (ToC) is required, this should be numbered separately in the Roman numeral style e.g. i, ii, ii, iv, and so on.

Title Pages

Requirements for title pages often vary so we have covered this in a separate article. Our visuals show how to create standard title pages for undergraduate, thesis, and dissertation papers.

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Creating a Table of Content

Tables of content are generally developed around a paper’s main headings and its subheadings.

The chapters in lengthier papers may even be sub-divided.

NB: Many ToCs have what are called “Dot-Leader” tabs. Essentially, this means a series of dots (or full stops) between the content description and its related page number. This is an example of a dot leader tab: First Header ………………...1.

Main Body Formatting

Below are a few basic rules for creating the body parts of your paper.

Writing Style and Voice

Turabian-style papers should generally be written from the third person viewpoint (it, he, she) and in active rather than passive voice.

Avoid using the first or the second person viewpoint (I, you, we, etc.) unless your professor specifically instructs you to do so.

Heading and Subheading Divisions

Dividing a paper into clear and logical sections, with each one similar to a “mini paper” within a bigger text, can be very helpful.

Please refer to our page on the formatting of headings for more information on this subject.

Including Quotations and Other Research Material

The arguments in any paper are generally validated and supported with reliable source material obtained through careful research.

Remember to cite any quotations or sources that are not yours! It is much better to play it safe if you want to avoid plagiarism.

EssaysWriters.com offers a separate document on how to prevent plagiarism and how to include quoted material, paraphrased material, summaries and block quote into your text.

Formatting Cited Sources and Bibliographies

This part covers two methods for citing research and various sources in your paper.

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Citation Styles for Notes and Bibliographies

This version of Turabian is commonly used in subjects related to the humanities e.g. history, philosophy, religion, literature, etc.

Please refer to our sample paper on creating note and bibliography entries for additional information.

How to Format Citations

The use of endnotes and/or footnotes is the best way to draw attention to citations within a text.

A bibliography at the end of a paper is the best way to list sources in one place.

EssaysWriters.com can help with all these elements.

How to Find for Citation Material

Journals, textbooks, multimedia resources, and various scholarly publications are good places to find material to cite in a paper.

Using Author/Date Style

This version of Turabian is commonly used in science fields, for example, the social, physical and natural sciences.

Our example paper provides more details on using the author/date citation style.

Additional Information on Formatting Citations

Enclosing citations within parentheses is the best way of showing you have used materials belonging to other people.

Compiling sources into one reference list at the end of your paper is the best way of showing all the sources you have used in your paper.

The team at EssaysWriters.com can help you create parenthesized citations and/or referencing lists.

You may find these useful:

The MLA Style Harvard Style Writing Vancouver Style of Citation Oxford Style of Citation

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