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High temperature short time processing uses high heat for a short period to kill the pathogens in food substances. This process has its application in the pasteurization of milk. It involves three categories that include flash pasteurization, steam pasteurization and irradiation pasteurization. Flash method involves high temperatures for short time treatment. In this process, products that are pourable such as the juices get heating for three to five seconds to an appropriate temperature killing all the harmful microorganisms. After the heating process, the product undergoing treatment goes for cooling down and later packaged. This process of pasteurization has its use in most drink boxes as well as pouches as it gives room for extended unrefrigerated storage. 

The process of high temperature short time treatment also uses the idea of steam pasteurization. It uses heat to control or reduce harmful microorganisms and pathogens. The process passes beef pieces that have gone through inspection, washed as well as trimmed through a space that gives heat exposure to the beef. It is pressured using strong steam for approximately six to eight seconds. This results to the steam raising the surface temperature of the beef to very high temperatures. Lastly, the beef goes through the cooling stage using a cold-water spray. This process is successful in reducing harmful microorganisms in the beef without using any chemicals. Sterilization by heat occurs in times ranging from a few seconds to minutes. It is usually applied to flow sterilization, in which the process time is less than 1 minute. At higher temperatures, bacteria are destroyed rapidly. The damage that occurs to the nutrients and texture is minimum.

The low temperature long time processing is a pasteurization method that uses low temperatures for long period to kill  harmful pathogens and microorganisms. This process of treatment involves the irradiation pasteurization whereby foods such as poultry, red meat and vegetables get exposure of little gamma rays. This process efficiently controls the vegetative bacterial organisms and all the parasitic pathogens that are food borne. It also lengthens the storage period of foods. This process has its application in pasteurization of eggs. However, exposing eggs to high temperatures can result to their cooking. Therefore, the eggs get exposure to low temperatures for a long period to avoid cooking. Some manufacturers are using this new process, but it has not widely spread yet as well as having it available. Pasteurization of eggs brings a reduction of the risk of harmful effects from pathogenic bacteria, for example the Salmonella. This bacterium is harmful since it may cause a person to become ill or contribute to the death of a person. The pasteurized eggs have their usage in recipes that call for raw eggs, like the Caesar salad, the hollandaise or even the be anise sauces. Other recipes include the mayonnaise, eggnog, the ice cream, and the egg-fortified drinks that do not undergo through thorough cooking.

Commercial sterility refers to the process of exposing an already treated product to heat to avoid any further attack by pathogens and microorganisms during the process of storage and distribution. This process has its application in the canning industries. The process helps to protect the product from the harmful microorganisms capable of developing in the food substance under the normal non-refrigerated heat. This especially happens when the food is likely to undergo maintenance during the distribution and the storage periods. The canning of these products is technical in that the cans have to undergo several processes of sterilization before the food products are at a point of storage in them. The passing of the cans and the food products through different temperature helps to destroy any chance of the pathogen occurrence. This destroys all the favorable conditions for them to survive including the vitamins they require.  The concept of Aseptic technology is used during commercial sterility. It also assists in the preservation of the product quality at low capital and operational cost. Commercial sterility refers to the after treatment process that sees that the already treated products are free for exposure of pathogens that are harmful microorganisms that may destroy the food and render it dangerous for human consumption. The canned food has to udergo this process to remain fresh for longer periods.

The effect of heat on microbes’ measurement is done by measuring their Ph levels as well as their temperature conditions. This testing of the microbe growth started with meat. The Ph levels as well as temperature levels are put into consideration. During the process, some microbes have a longer survival period than others having an effect on their Ph levels and temperature levels. Some become predominant than others hence it is important to realize at what temperatures they are fully destroyed. The microbes survive at different conditions on the food products. Therefore, the two methods of temperature and Ph levels become important in determining the effects that heat have on the survival of the microorganisms. This will be important in food processing to assist preserve the products.

To conclude, different methods are used to process food. These methods include high temperature short time, low temperature long time processing and commercial sterility. High temperature short time method is used in the pasteurization of milk. The low temperature long time processing uses irradiation pasteurization to process foods such as red meat, vegetables and poultry. Commercial sterility is performed on canned products. The effect of Ph levels and temperature on microbes should be conducted during food processing.

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