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Vision refers to the interpretation of what is seen. It creates sense to what is physically seen by the eyes and acts as a sensory mechanism to the eyesight. An assimilation of information and the surrounding creates perception. The formed perception is called vision. It occurs in various disciplines such as psychology and computer science in the modern world.

Modernity means a new era. It describes a span of historical events that are immediately relevant to the present time. The era is associated with development in many aspects of life including politics, economy, society and technology. Modernity is a belief in greater possibilities which come as a result of rapid change. The changes come as a result of deliberate human effort to make situations better in the society. Modernity is therefore as a result of improved perception.

The objective of this paper is to describe vision and the formation of modernity as a subject. To achieve the objectives, an analysis of the views of Crary, Gergen and Lowe on the role of vision in modernity shall be illuminated. The analysis is done by discussing the similarities and differences of the ideas proposed by different scholars. The paper further explores how the film of Scanner Darkly is linked to the views of modernity.

Ideas of Crary, Gergen and Lowe

Jonathan Crary proposes numerous thoughts on vision and modernity. The ideas range from olden ideas to those that are developed in the new era. Cray says that seeing depends on sight. He explains perception as a synthesis of awareness. Perception is also described in a new way as a construction of cultures. In this view, vision can be pursued, stimulated and reshaped from within of a person.

Crary suggests that vision is part of one’s self. He says that every individual on earth has some form of vision only that their intensities differ. A new vision shapes the formation of modern subject through creativity. Development of vision results into new ideas. Better thoughts often come in to makes things be done differently and in a new way. According to his theory, personal improvement must have catalyzed the inventions of machines (Cray 10).

According to Jonathan, man is part of vision, art and machine. That is integration between man and the machine. Man can fit in the computer system to produce output. Computer chips can also be used comfortably by people to create art in different areas. This is very true especially in the domain of graphic designs. People can also be tracked by GPS which is a computer tracking system. Jonathan adds that perception can extensively be transformed to eradicate manual work.

Transformed vision creates technology. Technology connects that the use of machines and equipment results into the creating art. This has made people to graduate from concepts to reality. The transformation has also converted people and homes into machines as people are empowered to do almost everything. The machines make people to be multidimensional in all aspects of life (Cray 17).

Cray’s ideas critically show that vision can form modernity. Any vision can lead into a level of creativity that can consequently brood productivity. Jonathan’s thoughts give an elaborate description of what vision was in the olden times and how it has developed in the modern times. Vision is seen to have grown from the time to time. This shows that our world is maturing.

Kenneth Gergen also contributes about vision and links it to the subject of modernity. In this regard, he brings out a clear picture of the old concept of vision and the growth to a point where vision becomes advanced in the society. This is the modern concept. According to Gergen, vision is communally formed. It is the synthesis of multiple art styles to produce an original style. This means that vision results from many styles combined together, (Gergen 8).

He uses the body trinity to explain the old state of vision. Man is made up of three major components. These include soul, spirit and body. Formerly, vision and art depended on the eye just like man depends in its three components. Perception today has improved as noted by Gergen.

Gergen argues that man is part and parcel of vision since it occurs within a man. There is integration between vision and the person. The two are intertwined to each other and hence a demarcation cannot be made between them (Gergen 13). In this regard, art and person also becomes one just like the machines and people become inseparable. The end result is that vision grows to a level where there is no clear separation between art, people and machines.

Perception grows to a level of creativity. At this level, technology becomes the way in which art is developed. The use of sense is then sidelined as reality takes its course. Machines are frequently used and people become attached to them in almost all forms of art in the society (Gergen 18).

From Gergen’s view, we find a good description of vision and the formation of the modernity as a subject. This is because there is a close look at the former times when vision only meant sight to a time when the perception emerges into creativity. At this time, vision then forms the concept of modernity.

Donald Lowe is yet another scholar who has given important ideas on vision and modernity. In his view, he categorically analyzes vision in two major concepts. There is an exploration of the olden time perception. In this regard, she gives insight of what used to happen in vision. This is then followed by a modern analysis. He gives the significance of machines as an achievement of vision to modernity.

In the view of Lowe, former times were characterized by man depending fully on his senses in vision. This means that there was no other way of perception for people. Everything was slow and tedious because a lot of sense had to be made out of every art that was being created. There was need to develop machines so that efficiency is created for perception. Now man is free from natural sense and can now form new thoughts that have nothing to do with the eye (Muir 7).

Improved perception has led to use of machine. Now machines are used in most duties. This is as a result of technology development. Technology comes into place due to creativity that has emerged from an advanced perception. This makes work easier and things can be done faster unlike the days when only sense was used in perception. Efficiency is also enhanced through the use of machines.

Machine and man are integrated .That is you cannot separate machine from the person who is using the machine. Lowe adds that man in the modern world totally depends on machine . He uses the trinity of man to explain the dependency that man has on the machine. Just like man depends on soul, spirit and body in order to live, he also depends on machine to carry out duties. This is a move towards the modern world, (Muir 10).

From the view of Donald Lowe, it is then vivid that vision forms the modern subject. This is because of the analysis that she has given on the topic. He explains what the old people to do. They majorly depended on senses to perceive things. There is an analysis of the current state where man depends on technology. This is a move towards the modern subject because we see that now man is integrated with machine.

Differences in the Ideas of Crary, Gergen and Lowe

Ideas of the three scholars slightly differ. This is based on a number of factors. They include the definition, the relationship between vision and modernity and the content given.

Understanding of vision differs according to the three scholars. Crary says that seeing simply depends on sight. In his definition he sticks only to the eye sight when describing perception. Gergen on the other hand defines vision to be formed communally. According to him, vision can only be formed through the synthesis of many styles. Lowe says that vision entirely depends on sense and nothing else. This tells us that the views of the three authors on vision and modernity are different.

Contents of vision and modernity of the three authors are different. Crary has given a very detailed approach to the concept with a thorough exploration on vision and modernity. He is closely followed by Gergen who has also given a considerate content on the topic. Gergen’s content is less elaborate compared to that of Crary. Lowe has given a very a brief content on the topic. Though brief, her content is very precise and accurate on the required topic.

Similarities in the Ideas of Cray, Gergen and Lowe

The thoughts given by the three authors are similar. This is because there are areas where they talk about the same concepts in trying to elaborate vision and modernity. These includes content flow, integral nature of mind and vision, and technology .Gergen and Lowe are also similar in the use of the trinity of man as discussed below.

Gergen’s text is similar to Lowe’s because they both use trinity concept to explain the relationship between vision and modernity. Gergen uses the trinity of man to explain the connection between vision and man. He says that man is part and parcel of the vision, just like soul, spirit and body are part and parcel of man. Lowe also uses the trinity of man to explain the tie between man and machines. She says that man cannot do without machines just like he needs the soul, spirit and body to survive.

Integration of the vision and man is a common concept to all the three authors. They all agree that vision is part of man. You cannot separate a man from his vision. This is because what a man perceives is what that man is since it portrays the internal thoughts of a person. In this regard the views of the three authors are similar.

Content flow is the same for all the three authors. They all start by defining what perception is in their view. This is supported with various illustrations. After that they all explore vision in the former or olden times. Here they explain what used to happen in the old times. This is then followed by what is happening in the modern times. The contents are then concluded by a look at role of vision in the modern subject for the three authors.

Use of machines is a common phenomenon in the description provided by the three writers. All of them recognize the use of machines in the modern times. They allege that when perception develops, creativity is achieved. This results into the development of technology where machines are used and not senses. Donald Lowe is outstanding in this concept as he comes out strongly to emphasize the dependence of man on machines.

The discussion on differences and similarities of the authors show that they are interdependent. They have some sort of relationship among them. This is because they have written on the same topic and at some point, their ideas are similar. Though there are a few divergent views of the authors, they resemble in some way because the similarities are more than the differences. It can thus be concluded that the authors are related. The relation may be due to many reasons. The topic could be a research work given to them at the same time of study or they might have studied in one institution at a particular time.

From the view of the three authors, we can establish the role of vision in the modern world. When vision develops, it results into a deliberate effort of people to improve their environment. This is because growth in perception makes man to be creative. Modernity is characterized by people who can reason and are enlighten due to creativity.

Reasoning is the art of using mind to deliberate on issues. In this regard, a developed vision creates reasoning capacity in man. It makes man to be able argue logically on important issues make decisions. Vision makes people to be enlightened .This happens when perception grows and people become aware of their surroundings. It helps them to be able to use the available resources appropriately (Taylor 2).

Vision has made people to become enlightened in the modern world. This is because it has developed from the time when there was use of sense and sight to reality. In this case, vision is clearly seen in the formation modernity. Knowledge has increased in the modern world. Man has used this advantage to develop many innovations because he can use machines and equipments. There are number benefits that come along with vision and the modern subject. They include improvements in areas like politics, economy, society, academics and technology.

The Scanner Darkly Film

It is a film that was developed by Richard Linklater. Scanner Darkly Film is a movie that covers a story on the fight against drug abuse by the American government. The story is about an undercover police officer. The officer is being brainwashed by his superiors without his knowledge to gain access to a drug operation front. The drug front is operated by a rehabilitation center. The movie is about how a police officer poses like a victim who should be rehabilitated and so is admitted into the operation front to find out the secretes about drug deals in the rehabilitation center.

Richard then becomes interested and shoots the scene using photographs without the knowledge of the police after making judgment about what was going on in their minds. He then arranges the ideas into a screen play. The movie is then filmed digitally and animated by interpolated rotoscope to have a presentable look. Scanner Darkly Film was produced in July 2006.

Link between Scanner Darkly Film and the Ideas of Crary, Gergen and Lowe

Scanner Darkly Film of Richard is linked to the ideas of the three authors on vision and modernity. From the time that Richard sees the superior police brainwashing the undercover officer to the time he shoots the film and fine tune it, vision is quickly turned into modernity. This occurs in a number of ways that includes use of sense, perception development, creativity and the use of technology as discussed below.

Sense and sight links the film to the arguments of the three authors. Originally all the authors suggest that vision was determined by what a person could see. They have also added that vision in the olden times was out of sense. Richard uses sight to see that the police are in the business of fighting drugs. He then perceives from his senses on what he can do to keep the scene in record. This is what makes him to decide on writing the play for clarity. The link comes because Richard uses the original idea of the three authors about vision and modernity. Scanner Darkly Film is hence linked to the thoughts of Crary, Gergen and Lowe.

Perception development in the Film also creates a link between it and the views of the three authors. Crary, Gergen and Lowe argues that the there is danger in depending on sight and sense to work or perform duty. They then suggest that towards the move to the modern world, perception should be developed to pave way for efficiency so that man does not depend on sense and sight. In this context, Richard transforms his sight and sense into a story through writing. The link comes because what is seen is perceived then transformed into a written play that somebody can read and understand.

Creativity in the Scanner Film shows that there is a link between it and the thoughts of the three scholars. Lowe and his colleagues argue that as perception develops the level of reasoning increases and people become more enlightened about their surroundings. This results into creativity where new ideas are generated to help solve problems. We see Richard using a photograph in order to keep the pictures he has perceived where the police are pursuing drug peddlers.

Richard becomes creative enough to reason that when photographs are taken, he can be able to use the pictures to develop the story appropriately. Pictures have a high level of communication compared to the written words because they are able to explain the scenes which are not clear to the listener through reading. This shows that Scanner Film has a link to the views Gergen, Crary and Lowe on vision and modernity.

Technology used in Scanner Film creates a link between it and the three authors. The authors say that in the modern world, man fully depends on machine. This implies that machine and equipment have become so significant that man cannot do without them. They further argue that man is today integrated with the machine and the two have become one. This is because of the increase in technology development and use in all aspects of life.

Richard applies technology while producing the Scanner Darkly Film. This is seen when he uses an interpolated rotoscope to animate the digital film to make it have a descent look. Technology is used to make the film become modern and appealing to many viewers all over the world. Richard is seen to depend greatly on the machine to produce a marketable movie. He confesses that without the high technology in animation, his movie would not have any impact on the world. This is because he can make a movie but he does not know animation and has to depend on the interpolated rotoscope. The Film is truly linked to the views of the authors.

In conclusion, the paper has extensively addressed vision and formation of the modern subject. This has been achieved through definition of vision and modernity and how they relate. The views of Crary, Gergen and Lowe on vision and modernity have also been explored. Similarities and differences have been highlighted. Link between the three authors and Scanner Darkly Film is shown. It is the true that vision leads to the formation of modernity.

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