This essay is a source of enlightenment. Colin Rowe presents the paradigm and program. Rowe identifies paradigm as implementation of priori standards while program points to the experiential importune of facts. It is true that both aspects present basic repetition. However, there is a part of paradigm that presents the drawing which will triumph over the figurative alternatives identified, but also dismissed. A diverse side of repetition propels by extending and rethinking the diagram’s logic. This is the repetition that is potentially non-linear. In identifying the role of an architect in the post-Renaissance period, professionals continue to state that all modern diagram uses are not uniformly diagrammatic.
In this essay, Vidler perceives that anyone interested in architecture or a profession in the same field should focus on the latter years of the 1950s in order to architectural programs with the current tasks. Reyner Banham and John Summerson showed this concept’s “reconception”. It is essential to understand that many, if not all, of the foundational concepts and ideas took the forefront in the years prior to the 1950s. However, characteristics of the late architectural profession enhanced the field to its current state. In the essays “The case for a Theory of Modern Architecture” and “Architecture after 1960”, Summerson and Banham clearly bring out the different characteristics in both periods.
Kipnis clearly presents his perspective of postmodernism’s role in architecture development. It is true that most people associate “new” with a point of interest in the face of perceiving it as a source of new principles. In other words, “new identifies itself with “bad/negative”. People should be ready to accept new technologies. For example, Mies Rohe brought another aspect of architecture by presenting glass curtained walls. Instead of receiving celebration for his revelation, he received harsh criticism. Currently, his ideas and influence are all over the world. The idea is to look at present and future.
Through identifying and analyzing the history of Rand Corporation, Michael Kubo clearly shows the audience the significant of research, culture, the past and present in any given architectural design. Rand’s memorandum (written by the corporation’s mathematician) served as a foundation for the physical design. Creative thinking is as crucial to this architectural design as the actual construction. In order to develop creative thinking and researchers’ interactions, some strategies need to be set up. In this scenario, the cold War’s military thought served as a matrix of corridors. The culture and the research ability of an entity are as weighty as the design.
Banham identifies some terms used in the 1920s and 1930s. Such a term was “Functionalism” which described progressive architecture and the approved forerunners. The symbolic meanings in the 1920s did not find any solid ground in the architecture of the 1930s architects. Banhan identifies the fights in the various architectural groups and the reasons they chose to fight. However, some symbols and principles used during these times are significant to the present day. Although it is clear that the perceived architecture and the perception on technology may be incompatible disciplines, most architects today work on identifying consensus in the various issues in order to incorporate the two.
Peter Eisenman used cultural response in defining functionalism. However, one should identify the cultural influence. The socio-economic groups, social groups and individual nature have a crucial influence on the environment’s functionality. Although cultural functionality produces form, there is a functionality element that on culture-friendly. The examples of “Architerrura Razional” and “Ecole des Beaux Arts” clearly explain that architecture can incorporate function and form in diverse ways, but present type and function as the same definition of architecture.
In his work, Oscar Niemeyer identifies the unlimited freedom where he refers to it as the plastic freedom. In his quest, he wants freedom that is unlimited to imagination. He wants freedom that accepts beauty and new things. He wants freedom that intrigues desire, emotions, creativity, newness and ecstasy, as opposed to freedom controlled by functionalism or technique. He refers to the architectural freedom. Although these expectations are suitable for any form of architecture, an architect’s perception should accept the functionality and techniques of any form of architecture as significant to this freedom. In this case, his designs did not make identifiable changes in the ordinary people’s lives.
Bernard Tschumi “˜program’ part of his work identifies the way architectural design becomes limited to function and form. Technology continues to play a significant role in bringing out the effectiveness of a design due to such circumstances. It also reveals its function and significance in the future. Sexual analogy enhances space by using programs. It is also of use when creating a junction between excessiveness concept and space. Through programs, architectures are able to identify the paradox in the imaginations or the designs of the normal architects and thus bring them to reality.
In these sections of “Event Cities”, Bernard Tschumi identifies the relationship between events and spaces. In these sections, he identifies that life does not depend on a functionalist architecture’s dedication to an idea. This idea perceives that given appropriate behaviors characterize a targeted space. This elaboration shows the “˜unprogrammed’ and unclassifiable space in other spaces, margins and gaps which present themselves in the author’s architectural works/designs. It is not a matter of following the trend that is in accordance with other architects, but rather, it comes down to innovating works that are commendable in the latter days.