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Question One

Graham Hitch and Alan Baddeley proposed that working memory was developed as a substitute to short term store as indicated by 'multi-store' memory model developed in 1968. The working memory comprised of three components namely the phonological loop, visual-spatial sketchpad and central executive. As seen in the sketch below, the central executive acts as the supervisory system as well as controls flow of information to the slave systems (Baddeley, 2007).

Generally, carrying out two simultaneous duties requires the use of two different perpetual domains, that is, the verbal and visual task. The figure below represents the working memory as indicated by Baddeley’s model.

Question Two

Synapse is one of the functional parts of the brain system that controls the flow of information through the neural circuits, critical in producing storage memories among other complex behaviors. In the recording of memory, molecules of the transmitter substance, which is released from the vesicles on input side of synaptic gap, through the result of sparking activities in connecting fiber, float across this gap and attach themselves on the site of conducting receptors on postsynaptic membrane (Wooldridge,1980). 

Question Three

Hippocampus, which is a horse-shoe shaped part of the brains, is highly involved in the transmission of immediate as well as short-term memories into the long memories. This section of the brain is crucial in the long-term memory, as it helps in activities such as organizing, forming, and storage of memories (VI, 2008).

Question Four

There are various memory principles critical in improving learning efficiency. One of them is the use of metamemory. It refers to decisions and judgment made in regard to individual memory and learning. For instance, students can monitor their learning process, which enables them to make wise decisions on how, when and what to study among other crucial aspects. It is further strengthened by JLOs (Judgment of Learning). The other principle, which can be used, is practice distributed over a long period of time, rather than massed all at once. Others include practice retrieval and active processing of materials (Schwartz & Son, 2011).

Code: Sample20

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