Performance management is the major labor indicator; all main indicators of production efficiency, and all labor indicators depend on the dynamics level: production volume, a number of workers, a compensation level, a product cost, profit, etc. Performance management is closely connected with the control of its change from the point of view of identification of adverse deviations of a labor productivity level in definite periods of time.
Performance management is vital for the success of any organization. Each organization should have a definite plan of management. In order to be competitive, the organizations have to improve the performance management system within their companies.
Â â€œThe organizations with better performance management massively outperform their disorganized competitors. They make more money, grow faster, have far higher stock market values, and survive for longerâ€.
Another important point in human resource management is the construction of internal business communications in teams. The head should not be inaccessible to subordinates – he should be ready to listen to and to take their offers and remarks into consideration, to give important advice to them. At the same time, he should be able to delegate the powers, sharing his power and responsibility with employees.
1. Effective Group/Team Relationship and Performance
Motivation is also very important. It should be said that unexpected and unforeseen, however fair and timely, encouragements motive better than regular and habitual. The economic stimulus should cause the desire to compete and achieve superiority â€“ a competitive spirit will help to come to the necessary result faster.
Professional employees are the key priorities for companies. In order to make the company strong and competitive, it is necessary to single out the obligations for every employee accurately. The personnel are the major assets of the enterprise.
A team (a group) is the most effective form of the personnel management in any company. People in a team are connected by an overall aim. The skills of team members supplement each other; they promote the decision-making. It is possible to distinguish the major factors which are at the bottom of popularity of a team work: an increase of an educational level of workers, strengthening of a competitive struggle.
The essence of a team is the existence of a certain task for all members of a team: its mission, the aim of which consists in its effective realization. The members of a team should possess the combination of the complementary skills necessary for the effective work of a team: administrative and technical skills, and also skills of interpersonal communications. They should possess the necessary knowledge about the problems or processes which are not within their direct duties; the team members should indicate all the existing problems; therefore, it is necessary for them to be competent more than in one area.
A team is the independent subject of the activity which can be considered from the point of view of the properties, processes, parameters, characteristic for a social group. The structure is considered from the point of view of the functions executed by the certain members of a team, and also from the point of view of interpersonal relations in it. There are the following structures of a team: preferences, power and communications.
Leadership is the basis for team management. Leadership is the main goal for team-building. Leaders have enough knowledge for forcing and motivating people to work. The result is the main goal of any team. It combines the synergy â€“ the coordinated work of all team members.
The effective team leadership and the system of successful motivation include an administrative ability to define the definite goals for the stuff, for the purpose of the achievement of a definite result of work.
There are the following stages in the personnel development: attraction of the perspective personnel – determination of leaders – development of leaders – an effective usage of their capabilities – retention of perspective employees. The first stage includes the events for the strengthening of the image as an employer, strategic workforce planning and forecasting of the required skills.
The leadership serves as addition to the team management, but does not replace it. However, developing the ability of teams to leadership, the heads should take into consideration the other duties of a manager â€“ to be a good leader. In fact, it is a difficult task to combine a skillful team leadership to a competent management, and to use them as two complementary forces. The leaders should act more like instructors, not like bosses. Leadership is not a dictatorship; it is a more subtle system of governing a company.
The leaders have the skills connected with the knowledge and the system of the values, which are formulated by the leader for the followers to understand correctly. Training of new leaders plays a very important role.
Team leadership is inseparably connected with changes. The world of business becomes more and more competitive and changeable, and the role of a team leader is now especially vital. The changes are necessary for a survival and a successful competition in the world of business. Accordingly, there are a lot of mechanisms how to increase the team effectiveness. First of all, it is necessary to support a team leadership in a company, and, secondly, to introduce the well-developed system of talent and reward management.
2. The Various Forms of Role Conflict Which May Result in Role Conflict/Stress.
The success of any organization directly depends on the correctness of the actions of top managers. The loss of reputation, as well as of the financial position of a company, is caused by the possible mistakes of top managers.
The formation of the atmosphere of cooperation and interaction in a team does not exclude the possibility of conflicts. A top manager should understand that there can be no progress and development without conflicts and contradictions, which are the sources of development. Therefore, a top manage should be able to distinguish the category of the conflict and to choose the strategy of management allowing not only resolving the conflict, but also providing the expedient implementation of the put tasks.
In the psychological plan a conflict is the collision of the incompatible, opposite tendencies, of the separately taken episode in the consciousness of a person, in the interpersonal or intergroup relations connected with sharp emotional experiences. The basis of the conflicts is made by the collisions of the incompatible interests, opinions, requirements, values, various ideas of the ways of their achievements.
â€œConflict can be defined as a serious disagreement over needs or goals. For the purpose of this paper, team conflict is defined as serious disagreements over needs or goals among team members. Conflict behaviors, or symptoms of conflict, include:
â€¢ Not completing work on-time or to quality goals;
â€¢ Not returning phone calls or e-mails;
â€¢ Passive/aggressive behavior;
â€¢ Not responding to requests for information;
â€¢ Hoarding information that should be shared;
â€¢ Finger pointing;
â€¢ Verbal abuse;
â€¢ Not attending required meetings;
â€¢ Filing grievances or lawsuits;
â€¢ Physical violenceâ€
The conflicts can be divided into horizontal, vertical, and mixed. There are the following types of conflicts: intrapersonal; interpersonal; between a person and a group (a team); between groups (teams). Generally, there are three groups of conflicts’ causes: labor process; psychological features of relationship of people. There is the object of the conflict being its reason, participants of the conflict, who can be both certain people, and groups of people in any conflict situation. The participants of the conflict can have an internal and external position in the conflict. The external position represents the motivation of the participation in the conflict which is shown openly by each of the parties to the opponents. The internal position is a set of true interests, motives and values which force a person or a group to join the conflict. The internal position can coincide or not coincide with the external one. It happens often that the internal position is latent not only from the opponents, but also from the person, as it is not realized by him. The understanding of the internal motivation is an important stage in a productive resolution of conflict. The head should predict the influence of conflict of all made changes, to analyze all communication systems of people of this group, to be able to operate the conflicts and to find the ways to do them to be constructive.
The constructive resolution of conflicts is possible if a conflict is perceived adequately by the parties. It means that the assessment of the acts and intentions both of own and of the opponent is not distorted by personal addictions; participants are ready to open and effective communication, all-round discussion of a problem, a frank statement of the views of the events and search for the ways out of the conflict; the atmosphere of cooperation and mutual trust is created.
The career growth demands the change of the rules of behavior. However, if a person works in the company for a long time, the employees know his merits and demerits; therefore, it is difficult for them to reconcile to the fact that a person, equal to them, suddenly becomes a chief. A person, who was promoted to a new position, makes mistakes, because he cannot get used to his new role. Thus, there is a role conflict. A role conflict is the conflict of the expectations: having been promoted, a person starts to behave according to a new role, but people around expect a former behavior by inertia.
It is necessary to adjust feedback at once: to listen to the wishes of the employees which should be taken into consideration. It will remove the fears of the subordinates which have a stress caused by the change of the power. Any doubts can share with the colleagues equal on the status, or with the head – their support will help to overcome uncertainty in the forces. The informal relations should be reconstructed gradually: if employees got used to communicate with the newly made chief in a smoking-room, it is not necessary to refuse this ritual at once.
The correct understanding of subordination also helps to avoid conflicts. The definiteness in business relations allows the manager to be protected from the manipulations from colleagues. The internal positioning of a new chief is very important. It is very important to overcome, first of all, own doubts caused by a sharp change of social roles at change of the status. However, there is the opposite way sometimes: a person, inspired by the career growth, tears the communications with the former friends who are his subordinates. However, more often people suffer from the underestimated self-image after the promotion to a new position. Sometimes it is necessary only to know about the existence of the role conflicts in order to prevent them. It should be noted by the heads of a company and HR managers.
3. Conflict Management/Resolution
The achievement of the goals in business directly depends on communications -interaction with partners, clients, colleagues, representatives of state structures. The skills of effective communications can provide the greatest influence and participation of the person at all stages of formation and business organization development. Bad communications can be both the reason, and a consequence of a conflict. Bad information transfer can operate as a catalyst, preventing certain workers to understand a situation from the points of view of the other workers.
The managers of any company should find out that the essence of the conflict is a simple dispute on the resources, different approaches to the system of values of people or it is the conflict arisen owing to the mutual intolerance, psychological incompatibility of the employees. After the determination of the reasons of the conflict the head should minimize a number of participants of the conflict. The fewer there are people in the conflict, the fewer efforts are necessary for its salvation.
Effective communication helps:
- to predict the possible problems;
- to make the correct decisions;
- to coordinate a team work;
- to manage the other people;
- to develop relations;
- to master knowledge;
- to create a definite vision of the future;
- to motivate employees.
The development of the program of effective communications should start from the general assessment of the administrative environment. After that the organizational structure and the type of the already existing communications should be thoroughly studied. In order to estimate a present condition of a team and a degree of satisfaction of workers, it is necessary to make a research and to determine what forms of communications as the most widely used and more effective.
The interpersonal methods of a conflict situation control are based on five main styles of behavior: smoothing, compromise, cooperation, ignoring, and counteraction.
â€œConflict-management styles have generally been studied as individual characteristics or tendencies. An individual’s conflict style comprises a behavioral orientation and general expectations about his or her approach to conflict. This conception does not prevent an individual from changing styles or enacting behaviors not typically associated with a particular styleâ€.
The style of smoothing is realized in the actions directed at the smoothing and creation of the normal working atmosphere. The use of this style is justified, if the main thing is tranquility and stability restoration, instead of a conflict resolution and if the subject of disagreement is important for the other party, and is not especially important for the person using this style.
The style of a compromise: the parties try to settle the disagreements by certain reciprocal concessions. The purposes are achieved not completely for the sake of the conditional equality. The ability to use a compromise allows resolving the conflict quickly enough, but not always promotes the achievement of the optimum decision.
The style of cooperation is characterized by the fact that the parties disagree, but are ready to listen to each other to state the positions, to understand the causes of the conflict and to develop the long-term mutually advantageous decision. Such a style is difficult, because it demands the ability to constrain emotions, clearly to state the desires, to listen to the opponents attentively.
The style of ignoring means that a person does not defend the point of view with anybody, does not cooperate with anybody for decision development, and simply avoids any contact, avoiding the disagreements and without a desire to solve a problem. In this case the conflict does not occur, but the problem in some cases remains not solved. This style can be used for a delay of the solution for the purpose of time prize for collecting additional information, situation studying.
The style of counteraction means the orientation only at own opinion without the consideration of the opinions of others. It is usually used by the people possessing a big authority, a power, and a strong will. This style can be applied in case if a head leads an open struggle for the interests, considering that the decision offered by him is the best one or if it is necessary to make an unpopular decision. This style suppresses the initiative of subordinates, interferes with a free exchange of opinions and can lead to the new conflicts.
The number of moments should be necessarily considered in order to have effective communications. It is also important for any company to establish the accurate criteria for the definition of information which is subject to the distribution among the personnel. Such data can raise the degree of satisfaction in the company and stimulate labor productivity.
In order to keep a good atmosphere within a team, the management should also care for the diversity. Gender, national, and regional balance are among the priorities of any company in a choice of the appropriate management style. Putting diversity as a goal, a company’s management needs to take the necessary measures for the provision of a smooth inflow of the candidates with a diverse background during the process of recruitment. Special recruitment days should be among the priorities of the HR department.
In order to avoid claims and bad treatment, it is necessary to use the strategy of training to skills on settlements of conflicts and problem solution to avoid the possible disagreements. There are two stages in the strategy of problems or conflicts solution: detection of a problem and a solution of a problem.
The effective communication in a team includes such aspects as a feedback in the course of communications; ways of dialogue optimization, active listening, interaction with people of various psychological types, features of psycho physiological processes of perception, processing and information transfer in the course of interpersonal dialogue and many other things.
4. Management Decisions in a Team
The management of decision-making is the result of the work of a manager. The future of any company depends on the achievement of the put goals. Therefore, the decision-making always have a lot of difficulties. Correct decision-making is the manager’s prerogative. It is the most important part of any manager’s work.
Effective communications are necessary for the maintenance of a positive atmosphere in a team. An effective communication is a key to the achievement of the personal and professional goals. Understanding the laws which are the grounds for any interaction people can easily influence the productivity of the interpersonal interaction; receive the necessary information from it.
Human resources are very important for the successful activity of a company. Each employee, especially if he or she is in a direct contact to a visitor in the course of service, brings an essential mite in success (or failure) of business. Therefore, the personnel service is the major element of the company’s mechanism.
Â â€œGood managers listen to their employees’ aspirations, act as coaches, identify their strengths and areas for improvement, and offer them continual feedback about their performanceâ€.
In order to keep labor potential of the company the HR managers should provide:
- necessary quantity of breaks during a working day;
- possibility for restoration of forces after the done work, especially in unusual conditions;
- means for physical and emotional unloading;
- alternation of tasks.
After all, it is very important to retain qualified employees as professionally selected candidates can become an excellent tool for the increase of the organizational activity. Going ahead it is necessary to train and to develop the employees and to retain them on the giving position opening the perspective of a career growth.
Moreover, the work of an administrative board of any company is inseparably connected with the realization of performance management and reward system for team leaders. The general performance of the company and its departments substantially depend on the employees’ motivation.
It is also necessary for the top managers of the companies to remember that any changes can create the instable atmosphere in collective, reduce an overall performance and lead to the increase of a staff turnover. Therefore, the reorganization of a human resources department should occur only if such changes are economically profitable for the company’s business in a long-term prospect.
Speaking of any business company, it should be noted that in the conditions of management change an increase of return from business processes which means productivity improvement of each employee’s work, improvement of the issued goods’ quality, decrease of possible expenditures become the factors of the company’s survival. In this connection, there is a requirement for the optimization of expenses; thus, it is very important to try to make it with the minimum decrease in the company’s market activity. In order to achieve it, it is necessary to analyze the external and internal environment with the subsequent allocation priority components for the company’s activity which can be any manufacturing supply, possible equipment or key personnel.
Thus, the accurate mechanism of motivation and estimation of the results for workers and teams inspires the confidence that they get the award for an effective work, and the management of a company feels confidence that the goals achievement will be performed with the greatest diligence and productivity.
The reward management has the following main functions:
- It allows involving valuable employees to the organization;
- It stimulate employees to achieve the put goals;
- It allows retaining the employees who are necessary for the organization.
To sum up the paper, it is necessary to say that teams play an important role in any organization. It is very important for any company to prevent conflicts in teams. Top-management of the company should understand that staff expenses constitute an important part of the organization’s budget. It is possible to lower costs for personnel recruitment, for example, by internal staff rotation – job developments of own workers. It is not necessary to refuse the transfer of function to search for the personnel to external specialists, services of personnel agencies.